Chapter Four - "Fans Across the Water"
International fandom and fan communities

Richard Lynch
P.O. Box 3120
Gaithersburg, MD 20885 USA


Comments on this outline-in-progress are requested!!!
(last modified on February 25, 2001)


* British fandom
  - early British fandom
    > the Leeds Science Fiction League
      -- the first prominent fan group in the U.K.
      -- existed during the 1930s, but had passed from existence by (when?)
      -- most notable achievement, and it was a big one, was when it organized
         what some people claim was the very first science fiction convention,
         in Leeds in 1937
         >> others claim, however, that the first convention was the much-
            less-organized Philadelphia convention of 1936; the controversy
            surrounding these competing claims lasted for decades afterwards,
            and this continuing controversy as much as anything has ensured
            the Leeds group its place in history
    > (other very early U.K. fan groups?  London?)
  - London Circle
    > was the first prominent post-World War Two fan group in Britain
    > came into existance in 1947, meeting Thursday nights at a fabled meeting
      spot, the White Horse tavern
      -- for most of its existence, was a very casual, unorganized group, with
         its meetings always being at a pub, starting with the White Horse
      -- frequent attendees included Arthur C. Clarke, who immortalized the
         White Horse as the 'White Hart' in a series of stories
    > in 1953, meetings had moved to another famous meeting site, the Globe
      -- was a larger meeting spot than the White Horse, but turned out to be
         less of a favorite for fans
    > by late 1950s, waning interest was becoming evident, which continued to
      end of decade
    > in early 1960, controversy and personality clashes erupted when some
      members of the group, most notably Ted Tubb, wanted to organize for more
      -- for a short while, the London Circle actually decreed itself to be,
         according to Ron Ellik in FANAC, "a proper-type club, with membership
         cards and dues and an elected committee and everything", but this was
         not to last very long
      -- eventually, those who wanted no organization won out, but by then the
         seeds had been sewn for the club's eventual dissolution as the
         camaraderie that held the club together started to disappear
         >> an additional factor in the club's demise was the loss of its
            meeting spot at the Globe; the whole place was remodeled, and the
            saloon where they had met became a dining room
    > passed from existence in 1961, replaced in part by Science Fiction Club
      of London
  - Science Fiction Club of London
    > formed in 1960 by dissidents of the London Circle
      -- an invitational club
      -- earliest meetings were at Inchmery
    > Ella Parker ran club for a short while
      -- meetings at her apartment, "The Penitentiary", 151 Canterbury Road
         in London's West Kilburn
      -- Ella became known in fandom in the last half of 1950s, as a fan
         publisher, but more so for her socializing
         >> hosted Friday night fan meetings until late 1964
         >> her fanzine ORION, that she inherited from Paul Enever, won
            SKYRACK poll for best British fanzine (1961)
            --- final issue (#29) published in 1962
      -- she was popular enough that a special fan fund was created to bring
         her to the 1961 Seattle Worldcon
      -- went on the chair the 1965 Worldcon
    > club meetings moved to Ethel Lindsay's apartment at Surbiton in Surrey
      -- (short info/bio paragraph on Ethel Lindsay goes here)
      -- TAFF delegate to 1962 Worldcon in Chicago
      -- published fanzine SCOTTISHE in 1950s and 1960s
      -- published fanzine HAVERINGS in 1960s, devoted to fanzine reviews
      -- she later became secretary of BSFA and hosted Friday night open-
         house parties
    > series of open meetings begun in early 1966, continued for about a year
      -- featured talks by prominent SF pros and fans
         >> John Brunner's "The Fiction in SF" later reprinted in NEW WORLDS
    > published 'Combozines' that featured writings of the club's active
      members, excerpts from other fanzines
      -- second was at 1961 Eastercon, LXIcon
    > disbanded in 1968
      -- decision to discontinue regular meetings in May 1968
         >> ATom said that after 10 years of seeing the same people, everyone
            knew what the others were going to say before they said it 
         >> had planned to hold annual meetings to keep the club alive at
            least in name, but it turned out not to be a workable idea
      -- last activity was a Minicon in November 1968
  - BSFA
    > formed in 1958
      -- origins can be traced back to a fanzine article written by Vincent
         Clarke in early 1958
      -- club came officially into existance at the 1958 British Convention
         >> Clarke was unable to attend, sending a collection of reactions to
            his article instead
         >> series of meetings at the convention brought about creation of the
            --- fans who were active in the formation process included Terry
                Jeeves, Archie Mercer, and Eric Bentcliffe
      -- club experienced a difficult first year, trying to rise from
         >> little publicity about the club was produced at first
         >> some of fans leading the club had to cut back activity for various
         >> de-facto leadership assumed by Bentcliffe, with Jeeves editing the
            club's publication VECTOR
      -- club finally came of age in 1959, when British National Convention
         (in Birmingham) was run under BSFA sponsorship
         >> but by the end of 1950, both Jeeves and Bentcliffe had resigned,
            and their places were taken by Bobbie Wild (who married and became
            Bobbie Gray the next year) and Doc Weir
            -- ill health forced Weir to turn the BSFA Secretary position over
               to Sandra Hall after just a few months, however
    > Officers of BSFA
      -- usual complement of Treasurer, Secretary, etc.
      -- President of BSFA
         >> honorary figurehead, ceremonial in purpose
         >> presidents of BSFA in the 1960s included Brian Aldiss, Edmund
      -- Chairman of BSFA
         >> in early part of 1960s, was the person actually in charge of club
         >> by end of 1960s, this too had become a figurehead position
         >> chairmen of BSFA in the 1960s included Terry Jeeves, Ken Cheslin,
            Roy Kay, Ina Shorrock, Phil Rogers, Roger Gilbert
      -- Vice-Chairman of BSFA
         >> by end of 1960s, was the person actually in charge of the club
    > clubzine VECTOR edited at various times by Terry Jeeves, Michael
      Moorcock, Jimmy Groves, Archie Mercer, Darroll Pardoe, Steve Oakey,
      Ken Slater & Doreen Parker, and Rog Peyton
      -- during Peyton's tenure (1964-1966), VECTOR was upgraded into a
         professionaly-printed publication
      -- VECTOR 52 was special fiction issue, with stories by Robert Holdstock
         Michael G. Coney, among others
    > additional publications
         >> begun in late 1950s
         >> edited for a time by Ella Parker
         >> died in early 1960s (when?)
         >> begun in 1965
         >> set up to carry news of BSFA, allowing VECTOR "to concentrate on
            wider aspects of the SF field."
         >> first editor was Archie Mercer, who stayed as editor for rest
            of 1960s
    > established a fanzine lending library in 1965
      -- by Chris Priest
      -- companion to club's existing SF library
    > held "Annual General Meeting" at the Eastercon every year
    > sponsored British Fantasy Award
      -- presented at Eastercon
      -- Dave Kyle initially appointed to oversee award's administration
      -- became the British Science Fiction Award as of the 1970 Eastercon
    > controversy erupted in late 1960 over club's purpose
      -- stated purpose was 'furtherance of science fiction'
      -- actual purpose appeared to be bringing new people into fandom
      -- both sides of controversy has its supporters
         >> John Phillifent, who wrote science fiction, complained that BSFA
            was "being run by, and heavily slanted toward 'fandom'", a group
            that he felt negative toward
         >> Archie Mercer wrote that it was only the fannish fans who were
            interested in doing the work necessary to keep BSFA going
      -- ongoing dialog resulted that lasted for a number of months in letter
         column of VECTOR
         >> differing positions of both sides of the argument were summed up
            by Daphne Buckmaster in VECTOR 10: "The main problem seems to be
            the fact that you [the officials of BSFA] are trying to cater for
            two separate and differing bodies of people, fans and non-fans. I
            would suggest, with all modesty, that you cannot do both in one
            magazine.  The editors and publishers in the professional SF field
            have never made any secret of the fact that they do not want or
            need any contact with fans, as such. It is my belief, therefore,
            that you will either have to decide that you are going to be a
            reputable organisation to encourage a serious and impersonal
            interest in the SF field *or* that you are an organisation for
            recruiting SF readers into the ranks of fandom. And if you want to
            do the first, you will need a more formal attitude if you want to
            be taken seriously."
    > in 1969, club's purpose again became point of discussion in Archie
      Mercer's fanzine PERTINENCE
      -- BSFA divorced itself from sponsorship of Eastercons in late 1960s
         >> many fans thought this a mistake, as Eastercon was the major
            annual event of British fandom
      -- suggestions put forth by Chris Priest and Bob Rickard on how to
         rejuvenate the club
         >> Priest suggested a strategy on how BSFA could expand membership
            sufficiently to have the resources to bring in a full-time
            secretary to actually run the club
         >> Rickard thought club's image was that of chaos and anarchy, and
            needed change before any improvements could happen
      -- unfortunately, discussions had no effect on BSFA, and club decline
         gradually continued until its collapse in the mid 1970s
         >> it was, however, successfully revived and continued as a centrex
            for British fandom for decades after that
  - late 1960s London fandom
    > by 1969, only activity was weekly meetings at The Globe
  - Young Science Fiction Readers Group (YSFRG)
    > formed in 1960
    > for BSFA's under-25 members
    > club's stated purpose was to introduce new people into fandom
    > Jim Linwood founding member of this group
    > ads for group appeared in NEW WORLDS magazine
    > about 30 members
    > members from U.K. included Darroll Pardoe, Mary Munro, Brian Jordan
    > members from U.S. included Peggy Rae McKnight, Robert Lichtman, and
      Andy Main
    > published YSFRG NEWSLETTER (2 issues, last in 1961)
    > group died soon after appearance of last YSFRG NEWSLETTER
  - Cheltenham Circle
    > began in 1955
    > passed from existence in 1963
      -- 25th issue of VECTOR noted it's expiration
    > had organized the 1961 Eastercon
    > prominent members were Eric Jones, Bob Richardson, and Peter Mabey
    > perhaps best known as the organization that originated the Knights of
      St. Fantony
  - Bristol and District SF Club (BaD)
    > formed soon after Loncon II in 1965
      -- first meeting, Sept. 1965, had 14 people show up
    > leading force behind the club was Tony Walsh
      -- apparently hosted many of the meetings, including the first
    > other prominent members included Peter Roberts and Graham Boak
    > comprised of some of the ex-Cheltenham Circle members
    > published a clubzine, BADINAGE, edited by Graham Boak
      -- first issue contained a letters column, from fans who had been 
         persuaded to comment on the non-existent issue number zero
      -- five issues total, the last in July 1968
    > club folded in mid-1968
      -- Boak left Bristol University for job in aerospace industry
         >> moved to Hertfordshire
      -- Roberts left to go to Keele Univ.
  - Stourbridge and District Science Fiction Circle (SADO)
    > Stourbridge was a small town near Birmingham, which was the home of
    > prime mover for founding of the club was Ken Cheslin
      -- Cheslin had come into fandom in 1959 when attended that yeat's 
         Eastercon [source: Hansen obit for Cheslin in Oct-Nov00 SF CHRONICLE]
      -- Cheslin almost immediately became hyperactive as a fan
         >> began publishing a fanzine for the british apa OMPA, and by 1962
            had become the Official Editor
         >> later became active in Tolkien fandom, and was British representative
            to the U.S. Tolkien organization The Fellowship of the Ring, and
            was editor of the U.K.'s first Tolkien fanzine, NAZGUL'S BANE
      -- in mid 1960s, Cheslin was one of the U.K.'s most prominent fans
         >> was elected Chairman of BSFA in 1964
         >> was Chairman, as well as Treasurer and Secretary, for the 1965 
         >> perhaps the most impressive thing about Cheslin was his utter
            commitment to fandom; in mid 1960s suffered the horrible misfortune
            of losing a hand in an industrial accident, but he used part of
            the compensation he received to purchase a duplicator for his
            fanzine publishing
    > by early 1960, Cheslin and two others had formed the club, and were
      looking around for more members
      -- they placed an advert in NEW WORLDS to promote their club, and soon
         afterward were contacted by two notables, Dave Hale and Darroll 
         Pardoe, who joined
    > the club didn't exist for very long; there soon would a larger, more 
      active group that would form in nearby Birmingham
    > SADO and its successor, the Birmingham SF Group, was the source of several
      notable fanzines
      -- LES SPINGE, which began in September 1960, started as a clubzine and took 
         life of its own as a fine general interest fanzine
         >> initially edited by Cheslin and Peter Davies
            --- later on, edited Cheslin and Hale
         >> it was notable because of its throwback style
            --- unline some of the newer 1960s fanzines, it, along with HYPHEN,
                kept alive the tradition of the old-style of British fanzine
         >> some of the issues were truly spectacular, in size as well as content
            --- 100-page 13th issue (May 1964) was so large that it had to be
                collated in two volumes; contributors included Willis, John Berry,
                Michael Moorcock
            --- 106-page 14th issue (January 1965) was assembled using a power drill
                and metal binding straps; it was tedious enough where they could only
                collate and mail a few issues each week
                >>> contributators to that monumental issue included such notables as
                    Michael Moorcock, John Berry, Charles Platt, and George O. Smith
         >> unfortunately, there was relatively low reader response to these issues,
            and it caused the editors to become discouraged and quit
            --- the fanzine still survived, though; Darroll Pardoe edited slimmed-down
                subsequent issues
            --- it was never quite the same after that
         >> the fanzine continued publication through the decade of the 1970s, however,
            and its final issue (#36) was in December 1979
      -- in 1964, Cheslin did a one-shot fanzine, titled A CHILD'S GARDEN OF OLAF, 
         which was a more whimsical publication
         >> consisted of cartoons about a Viking named Olaf by Mike Higg to which
            Cheslin provided captions
         >> Cheslin revived the title in the 1980s for series of fanzines of a
            similar nature that continued irregularly through much of the 1990s
  - Birmingham Science Fiction Group
    > formed in 1961
      -- did not contact rest of British fandom until 1963, when one of its
         members journeyed to Peterborough for the 1963 Eastercon
    > founded by Roger Peyton and Cliff Teague
    > other members included fan artist Mike Higgs
    > Ken Cheslin became early mentor to group
    > Tony Ventris-Field, a reporter from Erdington News, joined club in 1962
      -- newspaper would give free publicity only to local organizations
      -- club became "The Erdington SF Circle" to con the paper's editor
         >> little paper slips advertizing the ESFC were put in SF books at
            Birmingham Rag Market: "Are you interested in SF?  Join the
            Erdington SF Circle."
      -- Ventris-Field wrote article that appeared on paper's front page in
         January 1963 
      -- no indication that newspaper story had much of an effect on club's
         membership roster
      -- one of book inserts found by Peter Weston, then 19 years old
         >> had been solitary reader of SF for 6 years
         >> attended meeting two weeks after finding notice, became regular
         >> would go on to publish one of Britain's best fanzines
    > peak of its existence was the 1965 Eastercon, which the club sponsored
    > there were several meeting sites for group during its history
      -- met at book store at first
      -- Sunday meetings then held at Victorian house where Teague lived
      -- later, met at home of Charlie Winstone, in Erdington
         >> Winstone had bad time at 1966 Eastercon, ejected the group soon
            after that
      -- after 1966 Eastercon, club meeting site became 'The Old 
         Contemptibles' pub in Birmingham
         >> pub was not really suitable as a meeting site, however
         >> one of last few meetings had only 3 people
    > club passed from existence on Sept. 25, 1966 (H.G. Wells's birthday)
      -- Darroll Pardoe and Martin Pitt met to toast Wells, then declared the
         club dead
      -- Birmingham fandom would not organize again until the 1970s
  - Liverpool Group (LiG)
    > formerly Liverpool Science Fantasy Society (LaSFaS), founded in 1951
    > prominent members included Norman and Ina Shorrock, John Roles, Eddie
      Jones, and Norman Weedall
    > published the fanzine BASTION
      -- edited by Eric Bentcliffe, published by Norman Shorrock, artwork
         by Eddie Jones
      -- three issues total, last in 1962
         >> last issue contained article by Dick Lupoff describing formation
            of a new New York fan group, The Fanoclasts
    > 1962 visit by Dave and Ruth Kyle after 1962 Eastercon
    > 1964 trip to the German National Convention by group of British fans,
      many from Liverpool Group
  - Oxford University Science Fiction Club
    > formed in 1962
    > founded by Chris Miller, Mark Wigan, and John Pewsay
    > outside guarantors were Brian Aldiss and C.S. Lewis
      -- Aldiss's house was center of activity for club
    > officially the O.U. Speculative Fiction Group, for purposes of
      -- however, often met in pubs
  - Cambridge University Science Fiction Society
    > founded in 1963 by Charles Platt
      -- at the time, a student in economics at Cambridge's Churchill College
  - NotFans fan group of Nottingham University
    > some of fans in organization were Jim Linwood, Bob Parkinson, John Dyke,
      and Jacqui Bratton
    > held regular Wednesday night meetings
    > disbanded in mid-1962 after Parkinson and Dyke graduated and left
    > club's fanzine, JETSTREAM, lasted just one issue
      -- Linwood published 2 more issues on his own, through the apa OMPA
  - A second Nottingham fan group, Forest Fields Science Fiction Society
    > formed in late 1962
    > comprised of schoolboys
    > published short-lived fanzine, ICARUS, that ran for 7 issues
    > best-known fan in the group was Dave Wood, not the same Dave Wood who
      had been active in the 1950s
  - Sheffield University Union Science Fiction and Fantasy Association
    > existed for a few years in early 1960s
    > when it was formed, there were only a handful of members, hardly enough
      even to fill all the various offices and other club committee positions
      they had made up
      -- this led one of the founders, Brian Jordan, to write that the
         club had "a committee of eight and a membership of one"
    > there was a clubzine, ENTROPY, which seemed to have died of heat death
      after only a few issues
    > not long after its formation, the club merged with the University's
      astronomical society, and became the Sheffield University Science
      Fiction and Astronomical Society, or 'Astrosoc' for short
  - Herts Science Fiction and Fantasy Fan Group
    > formed in April 1969
    > members included Graham Boak (elected as first chairman), Arthur
      Cruttenden, Keith & Jill Bridges, Mary Reed, Chaz Legg, Brian Hampton
      -- Gardner Dozois, who was visiting, listed as an honorary member
    > one of club's very first activities was to buy a duplicator 
  - Northern Science Fiction and Fantasy Group
    > Manchester area group
    > formed in 1964
    > chairman was Charles Partington
    > initial meetings held in a room overtop of a fish and chips store
    > showed silent 8mm movies at meetings, interested in films
    > Partington and some other club members also part of The Delta Group,
      which produced a number of SF-related amateur films in the 1960s
  - Faculty of Technology SF Society (TechSFSoc) of Manchester
    > a university group run by Martin Pitt
    > founded in 1967
    > as many as 115 members, though there were no scheduled meetings; no
    > group apparently survived through end of decade
  - Leeds University Science Fiction Group
    > founded by Bill Burns in 1966
    > lasted two years
    > was mostly a social group that had little contact with other fan groups
  - Leeds and District SF Group
    > organized by Barbara Mace in 1967
    > met on altenate Monday evenings in Victoria pub behind Leeds Town Hall
* Australia
  - the beginnings of science fiction fandom in Australia can be traced back as
    least as far as the 1930s
    > a Sydney chapter of the old Science Fiction League formed in 1935, and 
      lasted about a year [source for this section except where noted: Warner AOY]
    > another chapter of the SFL was organized in Adelaide at about the end of 
      the 1930s
      -- its most notable achievement was publication of a one-shot hectographed 
         16-page fanzine, SCIENCE FICTION REVIEW, in 1939, which was published by
         John Gregor [additional source: Foyster 5Nov00 email]
         >> there was never a second issue because Gregor joined the Australian
            Army soon after that [source: Veney "Prewar Fanzines in Australia"]
    > by the end of the 1930s, though, Sydney had established itself as the fan
      center of the country
      -- Bill Veney and about half a dozen other fans formed the Junior Australian 
         Science Fiction correspondence club in 1938
         >> they also did a one-shot, AUSTRALIAN FAN NEWS, a few months after 
            the Adelaide fanzine had appeared
         >> Veney had previously, in 1937, been the co-editor of Australia's first
            science fiction fanzine, SPACEHOUNDS, while he was a student at 
            Randwick School in Sydney; it was hand-written and had a circulation 
            of 1, and was handed around and read under the watchful eye of the
            editors [source: Veney "PFinA"]
      -- at same time, a rival club, the Junior Science Correspondence Club had
         formed, which had as many as 14 members at its peak and lasted for just
         a few months
         >> in its brief existence, managed to publish two issues of a newsletter
         >> the most notable member was Vol Molesworth
            --- (info about Molesworth here)
            --- he was described by Veney as "a ball of energy" who "couldn't quite
                see the reason for our slowness in many matters" [source: Veney
      -- but by far the most important fan organization, not only in Sydney but 
         in all of Australia, came into existence in November 1939: the Sydney 
         >> originally, the group was to be called the Sydney Science Fiction 
            League, but when word spread about the group, surprisingly as far as 
            New York City, Don Wollheim persuaded them, via corespondence, to
            take the name of the legendary New York fan group instead
         >> initial meeting was at Veney's parents' house
         >> the group managed something the previous groups could not: longevity;
            it survived, with periods of non-activity, for many decades
            --- it was the first fan organization to revive after the end of 
                World War Two
         >> but back in 1930s and 1940s, it was the vehicle that brought some new 
            people into fandom, most notably Don Tuck and Graham Stone, though 
            Stone left the organization for a while in the 1950s as the result 
            of a feud
         >> in the 1950s, the Sydney Futurians had grown large enough where it
            was meeting three times per week in its own clubroom, with attendances
            of as many as 40 fans on occasions when there was a party [additional
            source: Foyster 5Nov00 email]
            --- it could not stand all the prosperity, though; there were feuds
                and schisms with splinter groups forming
                >>> one of them, the so-called 'Thursday Night Group' or more 
                    descriptively, the 'Bridge Club Rebels', consisted of people
                    expelled from the Sydney Futurians for seemingly minor
                    infractions; Dave Cohen, who spoke for the group, said he would
                    pay for meeting space in the Sydney Bridge Club clubrooms, and 
                    anyone except Graham Stone would be welcome [source: Nicholson 
                    16Dec91 letter; Foyster 14Nov00 email]
                >>> another of them (name?) had enough stability to last until about 
                    1960 and even host a visit by Robert A. Heinlein during his trip 
                    to Australia in 1954
            --- it was the independence of some of these splinter groups that
                caused some friction with some fans, notably Stone, who believed
                that Sydney fandom was better served by a single monolithic
                organization [source: Foyster 5Nov00 email]
      -- but in 1951, Stone himself had started what could be regarded as a splinter 
         group, the Australian Science Fiction Society [source: Warner AWoF]
         >> the organization was a bit different than most, as it had no rules,
            no constitution, and except for Stone (who served as secretary), 
            no officers
         >> its purpose seemed to be to keep all fans in the country informed
            on what other fans were doing, which it accomplished via its newszine 
         >> membership soon grew to about 150, but it soon became embroiled 
            in a series of feuds, mostly between Stone and some factions of the 
            Sydney Futurians
       -- another subset of 1950s Sydney fandom was the Australian Fantasy Foundation, 
          which was most noted for its publication FORERUNNER, one issue of which was 
          so slickly produced and with such high-quality fiction that it was comparable 
          to the prozines
    > by the mid 1950s, there was enough division and dissention in Sydney fandom
      that it couldn't really be called 'organized' any more
      -- at the business meeting of 1955 National Convention, there was much acrimony 
         involving the Bridge Club Rebels and what remained of the Sydney Futurians 
         [source: "Sea Green Sunday"]
         >> this led to the 48th issue of the Melbourne clubzine ETHERLINE carrying an
            'In Memoriam' page that read "Sacred to the memory of organised Sydney 
            fandom, which passed away after a lingering attack of schizophrenia 
            April 1st 1955.  Resting in the hope of a Glorious Resurrection." 
            [source: Foyster 2May99 email]
      -- if there was one fan who was nearest the center of all the dissension, it was
         Graham Stone; he had become involved in an escalating row about who had control
         over the Sydney Futurians sf library that was the source of much of the 
         unpleasantness at the 1955 Natcon business meeting [sources: MSFC web site;
         "Sea Green Sunday"]
      -- there was also dissension over who would sponsor any future Australian 
         National Convention, there were enough hard feelings that Graham Stone 
         never again supported another Australian convention
         >> however, by then, it was apparent that none of the Sydney splinter groups 
            were capable of hosting another convention in the forseeable future [source:
            Foyster 7Nov00 email]
      -- another Sydney club appeared almost immediately, and it assumed the name
         of the Sydney Futurian Society
         >> some of the prominent members were Molesworth, Doug Nicholson, Arthur 
            Haddon, and Dave Cohen
            --- Haddon, a tattooed ex-sailor, was one of the mainstays of the club;
                according to Nicholson, "he brought perhaps somewhat deficient 
                literacy but enormous vigour to the pursuit of fannish activities."
                [source: Nicholson 16Dec91 letter]
            --- Cohen, who had been involved in prior Sydney fandom schisms, 
                (describe him briefly)
            --- Nicholson (brief description)
    > but as the 1960s began, the Sydney Futurians seemed in decline
      -- the meeting sites were a succession of ever-smaller rooms [source: Foyster
         5Nov00 email]
         >> in effect, Stone was running the club as a one-man show, handling all
            the activities associated witht he club's library with occasional help
            from Alan South and Kevin Dillon [source: RClarke 24Nov00 email]
      -- some of the Sydney fans, most notably Doug Nicholson, started spending much
         of their time in a intellectual/Bohemian group called the 'Sydney Push'
         [source: Foyster 5Nov00 email]
         >> Mike Baldwin, another of the fans in that group, gained some unwanted
            visibility when a story of his titled "God in the Marijuana Patch", which
            had been published in a University magazine, got that magazine banned and
            himself prosecuted for blasphemy [source: Foyster 5Nov00 email]
      -- at the end of 1963, Stone took a job in Canberra, and Vol Molesworth's health
         started a rapid decline that ended with his death in the middle of 1964 
         [source: RClarke 24Nov00 email]
         >> it was clear that change was needed if the club were to last much longer
    > but the change did come, and Sydney fandom became revitalized by an influx of 
      new faces
      -- Ron Smith, who had won a Hugo Award for his fanzine INSIDE, moved to
         Australia from the United States in 1963 [source: Foyster 7Nov00 email]
         >> he had become unnerved by the Cold War escalations in the United States,
            which was one of the reasons for the move to a subjectively safer part 
            of the world
         >> once he relocated to Sydney, he leveraged his small press publication 
            skills and became employed by the publisher Horwitz [source: Foyster 
            7Nov00 email]
            --- by the late 1960s, found that he could make more money working for
                a publisher of soft-core pornography
         >> after arriving in Australia, almost immediately he located Sydney fandom 
            and became a part of it
            --- (more details needed)
      -- in August 1964, Ron Clarke and some of his friends at Normanhurst Boys High 
         School in Sydney published the first issue of a new fanzine, THE MENTOR [source:
         Foyster 5Nov00 email]
         >> Clarke had discovered fandom in 1963, after seeing a notice about an upcoming
            meeting of the Sydney Futurians in an issue of the British prozine NEW WORLDS
            [source: RClarke 24Nov00 email]
            -- on the night of the meeting, as he later remembered, "I ventured into 
               Sydney to 96 Phillip Street, up the dark and musty stairs to the room on 
               the 2nd floor where dwelt the Futurian Society of Sydney library.  There I
               met Graham Stone, Kevin Dillon, and Alan South, as well as coffee whose
               taste and odour I can still taste and smell to this day."
         >> soon afterwards he became a member of the Sydney Futurians [source: Clarke 
            22Nov00 email]
            --- he quickly obtained the address of an active fanzine publisher in 
                Melbourne, John Foyster, who sent him a copy of his fanzine SATURA
            --- Clarke soon experienced the urge to 'pub his ish', so Foyster got him
                in contact with another active fan, John Baxter, who lived in Sydney
            --- Baxter provided him copies of his fanzine, SOUFFLE, but more importantly,
                helped him select a manual typewriter
            --- Clarke, who was in his last year in high school, then founded the sf club
                there that would publish the first few issues of THE MENTOR
         >> the first issues were not very memorable, published initially for the pupils
            at the school, and were dismissed by Clarke himself as little more than
            crudzines [source: Clarke 22Nov00 email]
         >> after graduating from high school in 1966, Clarke continued THE MENTOR
            as his own fanzine
            --- by the seventh issue, the editorship had been reduced to Clarke himself, 
                and the only reason it as published, according to Clarke, was to "show 
                the flag" at the Melbourne Conference of May 1968 [source: Clarke 22Nov00
            --- but things improved after that, with monthly issues over the next four 
                months in quality and size, that established THE MENTOR as one of 
                Australia's best fanzines
            --- Clarke's philosophy with THE MENTOR was to publish a mix, from fiction
                to poetry to articles of fanhistorical interest; he later wrote that 
                "One of the main reasons I publish TM is to give stf fans the opportunity
                to see their stories in print and to hear what other people, stf readers
                like themselves, think of them." [source: Clarke 22Nov00 email]
            --- Clarke continued to publish the fanzine, with minor interruptions,
                until the late 1990s
         >> Clarke himself, perhaps because of THE MENTOR, later became of one 
            Sydney's most prominent fans
            --- he attended first convention in 1966
            --- one of founders of Sydney Science Fiction Foundation and ANZAPA
            --- in the 1970s, besides continuing to publish TM, he was active in helping
                to revive the Sydney Futurians from yet another moribund period, and
                even chaired one of the Australian National Conventions in that decade 
                (in 1974) [source: Foyster 2Apr99 email]
    > one of the more important events in Sydney fandom in the 1960s was the visit,
      in (when?), of famous writers Leigh Brackett and Edmond Hamilton
      -- John Bangsund, a Melbourne fan of whom more will be mentioned shortly, wanted 
         to make sure Brackett and Hamilton would meet some fans while they were in 
         Australia, and contacted two people he knew in Sydney to organize the event:
         Betsy (lastname?) and John Danza [source: Foyster 5Nov00 email]
         >> little was heard of the organizers after that hurriedly-arranged event, but 
            the event itself was so successful that it gave organized fandom in Sydney 
            a needed boost
         >> an organization of fans came together as a result of the event, and became
            known as the Sydney Science Fiction Foundation
    > Sydney Science Fiction Foundation
      -- pretentious-sounding name aside, it was a science fiction club similar in 
         intent and style to other Sydney sf clubs [source: Foyster 8Nov00 email]
      -- (details? purpose? prominent fans? activities?)
      -- the prime mover-and-shaker of the organization was Gary Mason
         >> Mason considered himself more of a comics fan than a science fiction fan, 
            but he was the organizational force that kept the SSFF active in its 
            early years [source: Foyster 5Nov00 email]
      -- other members included Ron & Sue Clarke, Shayne McCormack, Kevin Dillon
         [source: Foyster 8Nov00 email]
         >> there were crossovers from other Sydney fan groups, including even the 
            local STAR TREK club
      -- in the end, the organization proved to be somewhat long-lived, but not with
         permanency; it survived well into the 1970s, but passed from existence by
         the time the 1980s had arrived [source: Foyster 5Nov00 email]
  - Melbourne fandom
    > got its start in May 1952, with the formation of the Melbourne Science Fiction
      Group [source: Warner, corrected by MSFC web site and various Foyster emails]
      -- founders included Race Mathews and Bob McCubbin, who met each other in 
         August 1951 at Franklin's Lending Library in the Eastern Market of central 
         Melbourne [sources: MSFC web site, Mathews 7Nov00 email]
      -- other founders of the club were Leo "Lee" Harding, Merv Binns, and Ditmar 
         "Dick" Jenssen
         >> Binns had worked in a bookstore near where Mathews and McCubbin had met, 
            and took it upon himself to make sure there was science fiction for sale 
            --- McGills was a dark, narrow store about 3 blocks from the Eastern 
                Market; it specialized in technical books, but had a sf section of
                both books and magazines near the front of the store [source:
                Foyster 14Nov00 email]
                >>> both McCubbin and Mathews frequented McGills as well as Franklin's,
                    so it wasn't long before they connected up with Binns
            --- Binns became, in effect, the Group's promotion and publicity 
                director, as he inserted sheets of paper promoting upcoming Group
                meetings into magazines sold at the store [source: Foyster 31Oct00
            --- Bruce Gillespie later described another benefit of Binn's employment at 
                McGill's: "In his role as Secretary/Everything Else of the Melbourne
                Science Fiction Club, he was able to import American books, quite
                illegally (at that time), and sell them on club nights to members."
                [source: Gillespie 24Nov00 email]
            --- Binns eventually opened his own bookstore, Space Age Books, at the 
                beginning of the 1970s, which was the first science fiction bookstore
                in Australia
         >> Jenssen was a classmate of Mathews
            --- (brief bio)
            --- the annual Australian science fiction awards are nicknamed the 
                >>> during the second half of the 1960s he had noticed that the 
                    amount of science fiction produced by Australian writers had 
                    been steadily increasing, and merited some attention
                >>> so, in 1969, he funded creation of a new award for, as he stated at
                    that year's NatCon, "excellence in various fields of science fiction"
                    which included both pro and fan activities [source: Foyster 2Nov00 
                    and 2Nov00 emails]
                >>> Ditmars have been since given out each year at the Australian 
                    National Convention 
            --- Jenssen became mostly inactive about (when?)
                >>> in the 1970s(?) he became Head of the Department of Meteorology 
                    at the University of Melbourne [source: Gillespie 8Nov00 email]
         >> Harding was a member of Stone's ASFS, and had been given Jenssen's
            address by Stone [source: MSFC web site]
            --- Harding became known as a prolific fan publisher, one who, according
                to Doug Nicholson, "did not accept criticism easily" [source:
                Nicholson 16Dec91 letter]
            --- however, Harding and Stone did not get along very well, not an 
                unusual circumstance for Stone and most Melbourne fans at that time
            --- Harding dropped out of fandom about 1955, in part to pursue outside 
                interests as a professional photographer, but reappeared with renewed 
                vigor at the start of the 1960s [sources: Foyster 5Nov00 and 8Nov00 
            --- he later became a successful writer of both science fiction and 
                childrens stories, winning the Australian Children's Book Award in
                1982 [source: Gillespie 8Nov00 email]
      -- first official meeting wasn't until May 9, 1952, at the home of Mathews 
         [sources: MSFC web site and Foyster 31Oct00 email]
         >> it took the better part of a year before Mathews' parents would allow 
            it; their first impression of McCubbin had not been very favorable 
            [sources: Mathews 7Nov00 and 8Nov00 emails]
            --- it took a bit of time for them to figure out that McCubbin was 
                harmless; by the time Leo Harding appeared on the scene in early 
                1952, they had relented
            --- Harding may well have been the necessary ingredient that allowed
                the organization not only to form, but to succeed; Mathews later
                wrote that "Lee's arrival interjected a lot of additional energy
                to the local sf scene, and it may well be that without him the
                Group would either not have been established or, more likely,
                would have been short-lived." [source: Mathews 8Nov00 email]
         >> early meetings featured lots of talk and moderate amounts of chess-
         >> there wasn't much of a formal organization; McCubbin was the self-
            elected Chairman, for what it was worth [source: MSFC web site]
      -- at first, meetings were in members' homes, or in a convenient coffee 
         lounge just across from McGills, but by 1952 the group had grown too large
         to continue with those [sources: Warner AWoF and Foyster 31Oct00 and 14Nov00
         >> the meeting site shifted to the Oddfellows Hall on Latrobe Street in 
            Melbourne [sources: Foyster 2May99 email and MSFC web site]
            --- the Group was provided, for the princely sum of 12/6 per meeting, 
                a basement room for the meeting and use of a cupboard for the 
                Group's library
            --- usually about 10-20 people attending
         >> after that, they started meeting in an office on Lennox Street in 
            Richmond, one of Melbourne's suburbs
         >> by end of 1950s the meeting site was a place on Little Collins Street 
            in Melbourne's Central Business District, a site that was in a not
            very friendly-looking part of the CBD [source: Foyster 31Oct00 email]
      -- the MSFG became known to the outside fan world via its clubzine 
         ETHERLINE, which was edited by Ian J. Crozier [source: Foyster 2May99 
         >> it replaced a short newsletter that McCubbin had been publishing since 
            soon after the Group formed [source: Foyster 1Nov00 email]
         >> first issue edited by Harding, thereafter by Crozier [source: Foyster 
            1Nov00 email]
            --- (need a very brief, 1-2 sentence description of Crozier here)
         >> started out as a one-sheet in early 1950s, lasted until about 1958
            --- Binns would put out the current issue in McGills, right next to
                the sf books and magazines there [source: Foyster 14Nov00 email]
         >> the peak of its existence was from 1955, when twenty issues were 
            published, through 1958, when its largest issues were published 
            [source: Foyster 5Nov00 email]
    > the MSFG became the Melbourne Science Fiction Club by May 1957 [source:
      Foyster 31Oct00 email]
      -- the end of the 1950s was a time of transition for the club, with 
         departure of some of the older members such as McCubbin and Ian Crozier
         and change-over from a committee-run structure to something a lot less
         >> McCubbin had begun to have more responsibilities in his high-school
            teaching career [source: Foyster 31Oct00 email]
         >> Crozier's gafiation was perhaps the most significant, because with 
            Crozier's departure came the end of ETHERLINE; the fanzine had been
            perhaps the Group's most demanding activity, and after Crozier's
            departure nobody else felt they could take it on [source: Foyster
            31Oct00 email]
         >> another of the founders, Harding, was long gone by then, having started
            a career as a professional photographer; a contributing factor to his 
            departure had been a personality clash with Crozier [source: Foyster 
            8Nov00 email]
      -- Race Mathews had departed the scene, too; though he had met his wife at
         one of the Group's meetings, he had sold much of his sf collection at 
         Group meetings to finance his courtship of her [source: MSFC web site]
         >> his involvement with the Group ceased about 1956; he eventually became 
            interested in politics, and eventually was elected first, in the early
            1970s, to the Federal Parliament, and later saw regional public service
            as Minister of the Arts and Police in the Victoria State Government 
            [sources: Foyster 8Nov00 email; Gillespie 8Nov00 email]
      -- about this time, Merv Binns arranged for the club to start meeting at
         a site on McKillop Street, but to secure the location, he had to 
         provide the organization's name [source: Foyster 23Oct00 email]
         >> the previous site, at Little Collins Street, besides being in a
            gloomy area of the city, was also a bit pricy for the Group's
            treasury [source: Foyster 31Oct00 email]
         >> Binns, who had undertaken the search for a friendlier and less costly 
            site, had fallen into the habit of referring to the club as the 
            'Melbourne Science Fiction Club', so that's the name he gave to the
            new meeting place's owner
         >> Binns also thought it would be easier to secure a rental agreement 
            if the organization was a 'Club'; the word 'Group' implied a looser
            organization to the meeting site owner, one that might not pay its 
            monthly fee!
      -- the McKillop Street site, for all that, wasn't used for very long as the 
         Club's home; it lasted just a couple of years before a more permanent place 
         was found at the end of 1961
         >> the big problem was that the place was just too small; John Foyster 
            characterized the McKillop Street meeting place as being "crowded
            as soon as two members sat down to play chess" [source: Foyster 16Nov00
      -- for the remainder of the 1960s, the meeting site was at 19 Somerset Place
         in central Melbourne, not far from McGills [source: Foyster 31Oct00 email]
         >> this was really the 3rd floor of McGills warehouse; Binns had discovered
            it wasn't being used for anything [source: Foyster 16Nov00 email]
            --- it was easily large enough for the club's library and its members; 
                there was even a row of seats rescued from from an old movie theater
                that led to the formation of an offshoot club, the Melbourne Fantasy 
                Film Group
            --- there was even enough room for a table tennis table, which was one of
                the club's main interests; on many nights it was not easy to get a turn
                at the table
         >> to get to the 3rd floor, there was an open-air water-powered lift that 
            most members used instead of the stairs [source: Foyster 16Nov00 email]
            --- one of the members, Don Latimer, got the idea that newcomers to the
                club should get a special greeting, so when the lift was summoned down
                to the ground floor to get them, he rode it half way down and grabbed
                a handhold on the outside wall, then as the lift with the newcomers
                came back up, jumped back into it as it reached him to welcome the
                visitors.  This was especially effective at night when there wasn't 
                much light.
      -- to offset the departure at the end of the 1950s of some of the older members 
         there was an influx of newer ones, such as John Foyster and John Baxter, of 
         which more will be written shortly
         >> with these newer fans came a revolutionary change in Australian fandom; 
            these newer fans had a much different idea about what the MSFC should be
            --- instead of an almost reverential respect for science fiction as a 
                literature form as well as the space travel and other speculative 
                sciences that went into it, the newer fans made the partying and 
                socializing that fans often did into the number one activity [source: 
                Foyster 3Nov00 email]
      -- (early to mid 1960s stuff here... include some anecdotal material if possible
         about events, people, etc.)
      -- by the mid 1960s, attendance at MSFC meetings had risen to the point
         where the idea of holding a National Convention resurfaced
         >> the large clubroom where MSFC meetings were held, or others like it 
            that wouldn't require much money to rent, made the idea attractive
         >> and expected attendance would only be about double what MSFC meetings
            were then running [source: Foyster 4May99 email]
      -- (need much more 1960s info)
      -- other prominent fans in the MSFC during the 1960s included Merv Barrett,
         Latimer, Santos, McLelland ... (need first names)
         >> (some details, including any anecdotes)
    > The Nova Mob
      -- the beginnings of this organization may have been with a club called the 
         Melbourne Science Fiction Society [source: Foyster 5Nov00 and 23Nov00 emails]
         >> the MSFS was formed at about the end of 1968 by Foyster and John Bangsund 
            because the MSFC seemed too much involved in socializing to the point where
            there weren't any new fans coming in from the sf reading public [source: 
            Foyster 14Nov00 email]
         >> the meeting site was at the Victorian Railway Institute, where Bangsund
            was employed at the time; Foyster felt that "the Somerset place clubrooms,
            while just fine for members, did not necessarily constitute the ideal
            place to make one's first contact with fandom" [source: Foyster 8Nov00]
         >> unfortunately, the MSFS proved to be short-lived, lasting but two meetings
            --- both meetings were so poorly-attended, it seemed useless to continue
            --- but Foyster saw this as instructional, from a point of view of avoiding
                unsuitable meeting sites: "What that meant, in terms of the founding of
                the Nova Mob, was that we knew one method that definitely didn't work."
                [source: Foyster 8Nov00]
      -- as a result, and unlike the MSFC, which always had a public meeting site, 
         Nova Mob meetings were always in members' homes [source: Foyster 8Nov00 email]
         >> (specifics?)
      -- (need lots more info about this club)
    > other Melbourne fan groups of the 1960s
      -- the Melbourne Fantasy Film Group (I may move this to Chapter 6, where other
         similar organizations are described)
      -- science fiction clubs also existed at two Melbourne universities: Monash
         University and the University of Melbourne
         >> (brief details, if any are known)
  - Queensland fandom
    > first organized fandom in that part of the country began in Brisbane in 
      1951 as the Brisbane Science Fiction Group
      -- founders were Charles Mustchin, Frank Bryning, and Bill Veney
         >> Bryning was was one of those rarities of the time, someone who was equal
            parts fan and professional writer [source: Nicholson 16Dec91 letter]
         >> Mustchin, who lived in Coolangatta, had a science fiction collection of
            impressive proportions, and was regarded both as Queensland's #1 fan
            and #1 sf collector [source: Bryning 29Aug91 letter]
         >> Veney had moved to Queensland from Sydney at the start of the 1950s
      -- club grew to about 40 members at its peak [source: Warner AWoF]
      -- big event of its early history was hosting a visit by Arthur C. Clarke 
         in 1955 [source: Foyster 2May99 email]
    > whereas other Australian SF clubs were active in many areas, the BSFG 
      became known mostly as a Group for collectors [source: Foyster 31Oct00 email]
      -- (details)
    > in the 1960s, the club wasn't very active, but because its base was collectors,
      it didn't exactly die out, either; instead, it continued at a very low level
      of activity, mostly with informal meetings at members houses at irregular
    > it wasn't until November 1969 that a more active organization was formed, when 
      Dennis Stocks started the Brisbane Fantasy and Science Fiction Association
      -- (details?  happenings?)
  - other parts of Australia
    > in Tasmania, the leading fan in the 1950s was Don Tuck
      -- Tuck first came into fandom in the pre-War 1940s, where he had gotten the
         reputation as an enthusiastic collector of science fiction [source: Veney
         >> he was also a fan publisher; his first fanzine, in 1941, was called 
            PROFAN, which lasted three issues and included the usual mix of articles
            and fiction
      -- (brief bio, include any 1960s activities)
      -- Tuck became best known for his HANDBOOK OF SCIENCE FICTION AND FANTASY, 
         first published in 1954, that collected biographical information on science 
         fiction and fantasy writers of that era, as well as their pen names, story
         listings and related information
         >>> it was subsequently expanded and reprinted, with a U.S. edition 
             published in (when?) by Advent
      -- Tuck, however, was a quirky character who for the most part shunned fan
         gatherings and anything else that very much raised his profile
         >>> this was most evident in 1975, where after he agreed to be the Fan
             Guest of Honor at Australia's first worldcon, he then failed to show
             up for the convention
    > other notable Tasman fans in the 1960s were Michael O'Brien and Paul Novitski
      -- (brief bios and other details here)
    > in Adelaide, the South Australia Science Fiction Society had come into existence
      in 1953
      -- the club did not make it to the 1960s, and organized fandom didn't reappear
         until the early 1970s [source: Foyster 5Nov00 email]
    > Canberra's science fiction club, the Futurian Society of Canberra, was meeting
      once a month in the 1950s, at members' homes [source: Foyster 2May99 email]
      -- like in Adelaide, the club did not survive into the 1960s, however, and it 
         wasn't until the 1970s that signs of fandom returned there [source: Foyster 
         5Nov00 email]
    > Western Australia
      -- in the 1950s, Roger Dard, of Perth, was the most prominent fan from that area
         >> Dard had contacted fandom on a trip to Sydney, happening to come there
            right in the middle of one of the many fan feuds [source: Dard 7March92 
         >> after that, Dard's fan activities were mostly through correspondence and
            as a contributor to fanzines,due to his distance from other fan communities
         >> Dard's main contribution to Australia fandom was his leading of the 
            successful fight, in the early 1950s, to get the import ban lifted on 
            WEIRD TALES, but the indifference from fandom he perceived for this left
            a sour taste in his mouth, and he was little heard from after that
      -- in fact, not much was heard of any fans whatsoever during the late 1950s and 
         throughout the 1960s in Australia; what fans there were there chose not to
         for any sf clubs [source: Foyster 8Nov00 email]
  - in the 1960s, several important sercon fanzines started publication
      -- edited by John Bangsund between 1966 and 1969
         >> (basic info here, born when? etc.)
            --- (need a little about being a theology student for a time)
         >> Bangsund first contacted fandom in 1963
            --- prior to that he had been employed as a bookseller, clerk-typist, 
                librarian, publishers' representative, and journalist in the 
                Melbourne area [source except where noted: Bangsund's web site]
            --- he was an avid reader, but until 1963 had never bothered with
                science fiction; when Queen Elizabeth had visited Melbourne in 1962, 
                Bangsund went out of town where he "stayed in a cheap pub and read
                nothing but Shakespeare for three or four days."
         >> that all changed in 1963, when at a party, he met Lee Harding, who by 
            then was a published writer of science fiction
            --- became friends almost immediately, and when Harding learned of 
                Bangsund's background as a theological student, he gave him a copy 
                of a book containing the Arthur C. Clarke's story "The Nine Billion
                Names of God" and invited him to comment on it
            --- the Law of Unintended Consequences took hold at that point: "The hell
                with theology!" Bangsund later wrote. "I was suddenly and most 
                unexpectedly hooked on science fiction."
            --- on Bangsund's next out-of-town trip, he read nothing but science 
         >> Harding also introduced Bangsund to fandom
            --- within a short time, he had met John Baxter, then John Foyster
            --- (did he join MSFC?)
         >> Bangsund, from his background, seemed ideally suited to be a fanzine
            editor, and it wasn't long until his first issues appeared
            --- he had been keeping a personal diary for a number of years, and 
                after he had met Harding he decided that "I desperately wanted to
                convince Lee that I had at least the makings of a real writer, the 
                sort of writer who could be published, perhaps even for money."
            --- his first published fan writing was a letter that appeared in 1963,
                in Foyster's SATURA [source: Bangsund web site]
            --- his first notable piece of fan writing was an account of his trip
                to the 1964 Adelaide Music Festival, which appeared in Lee Harding's
            --- during the mid 1960s, Bangsund was also acquiring the skills necessary
                to be a good editor
                >>> he was employed by the Victorian Railways Institute, eventually
                    being promoted to head librarian
                >>> he wrote book columns for the VRI monthly newsletter and program 
                    notes for various library events, and became very proactive in
                    organizing and expanding the library's holdings and functions
                >>> by late 1965, he had decided he wanted to be an editor
            --- it was at the 1966 Australian National Convention, when some of the
                attendees had decided that a focal point fanzine was needed to keep
                up the momentum from that successful event, that Bangsund was elected
                by acclaim, after nomination by Harding, to be its editor/publisher;
                the fanzine, when it appeared not long afterward, was the first issue
                of ASFR
      -- ASFR was a sercon-oriented fanzine, quite international in scope
         >> first issue, in June 1966, was 32 pages, and featured articles by 
            Brian Aldiss and Michael Moorcock
            --- the issue was reproduced using the MSFC Roneo duplicator
         >> by the end of 1966, Bangsund had managed to publish 5 issues;
            in 1967, he published the fanzine 8 times, an impressive feat for
            the total number of pages in that series [source: FANAC web site]
            --- the first anniversary issue, in June 1967, had 94 pages, and
                he followed it up in August with a 62-page issue
         >> peak of the fanzines existence was a Hugo Award nomination in 1968
            that honored is phenominal year of activity in 1967; it also received
            another nomination thein 1969
         >> however, after 1967, the issues started being published less 
            --- in 1968, was published five times; in 1969, only twice
            --- final issue, in June 1969, was a turning point, with a title 
                change to SCTHROP and the dropping of most of the sf content
         >> contents of some of the issues from the late 1960s included a
            biography of Paul Linebarger (a.k.a. Cordwainer Smith), a review
            of Michael Joseph's sf novel THE HOLE IN THE ZERO followed by a
            letter from Dr. Joseph (Assoc. Prof. of English at Univ. Of
            Auckland in New Zealand) who discussed his book as well as his
            long-time enthusiasm for sf, an examination of the New Wave
            movement as displayed in Michael Moorcock's NEW WORLDS, Swedish
            and Spanish reviewers of SF in their countries, and Australian
            author Lee Harding's essay on "The Loneliness of the Long-Distance
            Writer" about the difficulties of being a successful writer when
            isolated by half a world from the earth's publishing centers
         >> the fanzine lived up to its name with plenty of thoughtful and
            insightful reviews of current science fiction
         >> there also was very active reader feedback, with letters from
            professional authors as well as fans
      -- ASFR was the origin for a new generation of Australian fans in the 1960s
         >> Bangsund was a traveling salesman for a publisher during the second 
            half of the 1960s, and would leave copies of ASFR at bookstores and 
            news agents wherever he went [source: Gillespie 17Jun98 email]
         >> copies were picked up by people who then reestablished Sydney 
            fandom, set up a new Brisbane fandom, resurrected Adelaide fandom, 
            and brought together what western Australia fans there were into 
            a confederation of sorts
         >> Bruce Gillespie considered Bangsund's ASFR (along with Peter Weston's 
            SPECULATION) as his greatest influence for starting his own sercon
      -- more importantly, though, ASFR provided a means for some of Australia's 
         fans to display their writing talents
         >> John Baxter
            --- came on the scene in the late 1950s; one of his first fan activities
                was publishing a fanzine titled QUANTUM [source: Foyster 3Apr99 email]
                >>> it was different from many other Australian fanzines of that time,
                    in that there were many articles about a wide range of subjects,
                    not just science and science fiction, and there was also a large
                    letters column with many comments on previous issues
                >>> QUANTUM had been modeled somewhat after YANDRO, no surprise since
                    Buck Coulson had been one of Baxter's early contacts in fandom
            --- at beginning of 1960s, he was working as a clerk in the New South 
                Wales Railways Department; John Foyster remembered that "he remarked
                to me that he could usually finish all the work he was expected to 
                do by the middle of the day, leaving the afternoon free for science
                fiction and films" [source: Foyster 3Apr99 email]
            --- it turned out to be prophetic; eventually Baxter drifted away from 
                science fiction toward the movies
                >>> he soon became employed by the Australian Broadcasting Commission 
                    as a book reviewer, and later a writer and commentator on films
            --- transitioned into a pro writer; his novel THE GODKILLERS appeared in
                NEW WORLDS in 1966 [source: Foyster 4May99 email]
         >> Lee Harding (continue from earlier mention, in Melbourne fandom)
            --- contributed many book reviews to ASFR
         >> John Foyster
            --- born in 1941 in rural Victoria, his father was a Minister in the 
                Presbyterian Church [source: Rousseau 18Feb01 email]
                >>> in 1950, his parents moved the family to a suburb of Melbourne
                >>> in his early years, John distinguished himself both as a promising
                    student of high intelligence, and a talented rugby player
            --- Foyster discovered science fiction in 1956, during a two-month stay in 
                the hospital after contracting polio [source: Rousseau 18Feb01 email]
            --- first contacts with fandom were with Ken Slater's FANTAST (MEDWAY) 
                LTD in 1956 (info needed on how Foyster made that connection)
                >>> met Merv Binns in 1956, at McGill's Bookstore (how about some 
                    details, John?) [source: Foyster 7Nov00 email]
                >>> it wasn't until 1958, at the 6th Australian National Convention,
                    that he first made face-to-face contacts with any other fans 
                    [source: Foyster 7Nov00 email]
            --- Foyster's fan publishing career began in early 1961: in February 1961, 
                he published his first fanzine, EMANATION (details? page count?) and not
                long after that he became a member of the U.S. amateur press association,
                SAPS [source: Rousseau 18Feb01 email]
                >>> his first fanzine of any significance was titled both SATURA and THE
                    GRYPHON, and appeared twice monthly starting in February 1964
            --- by 1966, Foyster had become such a well-respected and influential fan, he
                was able to take on a challenge that hadn't been done in nearly a decade: 
                organizing and chairing an Australian National Convention
                >>> details about that convention will be reported in a later chapter, but
                    one of the things that occurred at that convention was the proposal, by
                    Lee Harding, of a new sercon fanzine to be titled AUSTRALIAN SCIENCE 
                    FICTION REVIEW, and Bangsund was maneuvered into becoming its editor
            --- Foyster contributed many book reviews to ASFR, some serious, some less so
                >>> the latter were usually written under the pen name of 'Kelvin Widdershins'
            --- in later years, subsequent to the 1960s, Foyster stayed continuously active 
                in fandom variously as fanzine publisher and fan writer, convention chairman, 
                fan historian, and, in 1971, founder of the Down Under Fan Fund, set up 
                similar in function to the Trans-Atlantic Fan Fund (whose 1960s activities 
                will be described shortly)
                >>> (need a pithy quote from Foyster here summing up his 1960s activities)
         >> George Turner
            --- Turner, like Frank Bryning, was another example of a fan who had first
                been successful as a pro author
                >>> was born in 1916 in Melbourne but his parents soon moved to the
                    Western Australia gold mining town of Kalgoorlie during the gold
                    rush [source for this bio: Buckrich bio for Aussiecon3]
                >>> had formed an attachment to science fiction and fantasy when was 
                    very young, after his father read ALICE IN WONDERLAND to him when
                    he was 3 years old
                >>> had also decided he wanted to be a writer at a very early age; by
                    age 10 was writing creatively; but it wasn't until he was 40 years
                    old, in 1956 that he felt comfortable to send anything to a 
                >>> his first published fiction was a mainstream novel, YOUNG MAN OF 
                    TALENT, which appeared in 1959; he had written 5 other mainstream 
                    novels by the mid 1960s, one of which shared an award, the Miles 
                    Franklin Prize
            --- he might well have gone on writing mainstream books and stories 
                indefinitely except for a meeting in 1967, set up by a mutual friend,
                with John Bangsund [additional source: Bangsund's web site]
                >>> it didn't take long for Bangsund to discover that Turner liked
                    science fiction, and not much longer than that for him to get
                    Turner to agree to write something for him
            --- Turner came on the fan scene in 1967, with a book review in ASFR that 
                demolished Bester's THE DEMOLISHED MAN [sources: Gillespie 8Jul00 
                email; Bangsund 14Nov00 email]
            --- continued to write reviews for ASFR, and then for Bruce Gillespie's 
                SF COMMENTARY after that fanzine began in 1969
                >>> by the early 1970s, Turner had acquired the reputation as one 
                    of the better critics of written science fiction
            --- by the 1970s, Turner's fiction output had become entirely science 
                fiction, after which he mostly transitioned back into being a pro
                writer again
                >>> his novel BELOVED SON was published in 1978; after that he began 
                    to write more and more fiction, and less and less sf criticism 
                    [source: Gillespie 8Jul00 email]
                >>> in the 1980s, his book THE SEA AND SUMMER won both the Arthur C. 
                    Clarke Prize and the Commonwealth Literary Prize for the
                    Southeast Asia Region
            --- Turner had been selected to be the Guest of Honor at the 1999 Worldcon,
                but died prior to the convention and was instead honored posthumously
      -- also brought writing of notable outsiders to Australia, including Brian
         Aldiss, Harry Harrison, and Franz Rottensteiner [source: Middlemiss 20Aug96 
      -- edited by Bruce Gillespie
         >> Gillespie was born in 1947, near Melbourne, and led an unremarkable
            childhood with no outward indications of an interest in science fiction
            --- (note: Gillespie was not an outgoing person, so there needs to be at
                least something in this section that indicates that... see his
                summary below, for instance)
         >> his first signs of interest in fandom was in 1966, when he bought a copy
            of the first issue of ASFR at the McGills; Binns had been prominently 
            displaying them there in hopes of snagging a few new fans [source: 
            Gillespie 15Nov00 email]
            --- it made an immediate impression; "After I bought Issue No. 2, I was 
            --- he also managed to acquire some copies of IF magazine, and became
                enthused about fandom as a global organization after reading Lin
                Carter's columns [source: Gillespie 15Nov00 email]
         >> it took a couple of years more before he started regularly attending MSFC;
            by then he had finished college, gaining a Diploma in Education, and was 
            steeling himself for an attempt at a career as a teacher [source: autobio
            outline for Aussiecon3]
            --- that would not work out well; Gillespie later described the experience
                as the worst two years of his life
            --- he escaped, as he later wrote, "by a weird series of accidents" into a
                position as an editor/writer in the publications office for the school 
                where he was employed
            --- it turned out to be job that he not only liked, but also one he was 
                greatly suited for, and, as he later wrote, "It proved to be an 
                extraordinary training course in every aspect of editing and publishing."
                [source: Gillespie 15Nov00 email]
         >> by 1969, the combination of his ability as an editor and his interest as
            a science fiction fan led him to want to be a fan publisher
            --- by then ASFR had ended publication under that title, and he felt there
                was a void that needed to be filled by a similar type of fanzine
            --- first issue of SF COMMENTARY appeared that year, followed by 17 more
                before two more years had passed
         >> in 1972, fanzine was awarded its first Ditmar Award, and also received its
            first Hugo Award nomination; in 1973, Gillespie was elected the DUFF 
            representative, and came to North America to meet regional fandoms and to
            attend the 1973 Worldcon
         >> in later decades, he became at various times a small press publisher, a 
            freelance editor, and even unemployed, but he never lost his interest in
            or ability for publishing fanzines
            --- in 1999 he was the Fan Guest of Honor at Aussiecon 3, that year's
            --- as he summed up his life: "My story is that of a very shy lad who 
                happened to find science fiction fans, the one group of people who
                could (partially) socialise me and give me a place to exist.  Fandom
                has been very kind to me."
      -- (perhaps something about the fanzine itself might be in order here)
  - Oz fandom establishes international outlook and links
    > Leigh Edmonds
      -- one of founders of ANZAPA
      -- in 1970s, was first Australian DUFF winner
    > Margaret Duce (a.k.a. Helena Roberts in the 1970s)
      -- fan artist
      -- (need more info)
      -- she eventually married Merv Binns
    > Robin Johnson
      -- was living in England in 1968
         >> had attended a few conventions and London fan gatherings
      -- on way to visit relatives in Tasmania (when?), changed planes in
         >> happened across McGills, where Merv Binns worked (how?)
         >> was given Ron Clarke's address by Binns
      -- in early 1968, on way to visit relatives in Tasmania and Sydney, 
         met at airport by Ron Clarke
         >> taken to fan party, met some SSFF people
      -- in 1969, decided to move to Australia, attended 1969 Natcon (in 
      -- became active in fandom starting in 1970, went on to be chairman of
         first Australian Worldcon
         >> replaced John Foyster as bid chairman in 1972
  - later, in 1970, committee forms to bid for 1975 worldcon
    > Robin Johnson later attended the 1970 Worldcon in Heidelberg,
      representing the A-in-75 bid
* New Zealand
  - New Zealand fandom first became visible to the outside world in the 1950s,
    mostly via fanzines and correspondence
    > prominent fans of that era were Toni Vondruska, Merv Barrett, Mike Hinge
      -- Hinge emigrated to the United States and became a prominent professional
         artist and illustrator in the science fiction field
      -- Vondruska's main fame was from a one-shot fanzine he did on his wedding
         night with his bride, proving that there are some limits to fanac
      -- Barrett (need bio and other info on him)
         >> actually lived in Australia for the first half of the 1960s
  - prominent fan Bruce Burn emigrated to U.K. in 1960
    > was greeted by members of the Science Fiction Club of London, twice,
      since his ship was a day late
    > returned to New Zealand in 1963
  - (what else happened in the 1960s?)
* Canada
  - (short summary of pre-1960s fandom)
  - decade of 1960s saw a resurgence in Canadian fandom that would lead to its
    hosting of a second worldcon, in the early 1970s
  - only isolated areas of fandom in the 1940s and 1950s
    > Leslie A. Croutch (of Parry Sound, Ontario)
      -- a well-known Canadian fan in the 1940s and 1950s
         >> was Canada's first Big Name Fan, and a member of FAPA
         >> (brief bio here)
            --- John Robert Colombo's book YEARS OF LIGHT, published (when?),
                was mainly about Croutch
    > John Millard and Ned McKeown became Canada's best known fans in the late
      -- McKeown chaired Canada's first worldcon, the Torcon of 1948
    > between 1948 and 1953, the sercon-oriented Canadian Science Fiction
      Association existed
      -- a pan-Canadian organization, whose members took interest in written
         science fiction, but almost no interest in fanzines and conventions
         >> about ten branches of this organization existed by the end of the
            1940s, including member clubs in Toronto, Montreal, Hamilton,
            Ottawa, Halifax, and London
         >> by the early 1950s, the organization became mostly lifeless
            --- a Windsor branch club abandoned the organization, merging
                instead with the remnants of the Michigan SF Society to form
                the Detroit SF League
            --- the Winnipeg SF Society was formed in 1950 under the auspices
                of Chester Cuthbert, apparently in an attempt to revive the
                CSFA, but with little success, and both organizations soon
      -- the CSFA's biggest claim to recognition was the 52-page booklet it
         published that described a system for classifying fantasy fiction by
    > Derelicts (a.k.a. Toronto Derelicts)
      -- active in the 1950s
         >> an outgrowth of the old Toronto Science Fiction Society, which had
            been in existance at end of 1940s as part of the CSFA, and which
            included notable fans Ned McKeown and Beak Taylor as members
      -- new group included McKeown, Boyd Raeburn, P. Howard Lyons, Pat
         Patterson, and Gerald Stewart (whose last name may have also been
         spelled as 'Steward' by fans)
         >> group was mostly a clique of like-minded fans who behaved in
            light-hearted, non-serious manner
         >> members interests included jazz and sports cars
      -- by 1960s, they had all dropped out of fandom
         >> Lyons became involved with the International Brotherhood of
            Magicians and published a magazine devoted to stage music
            --- he had also married Patterson
         >> McKeown started a professional career as an educator
            --- went on to become President of the Metro Toronto Board of
         >> (what became of Raeburn and Stewart?)
    > Norman Browne was active in early part of 1950s
      -- attended some worldcons
      -- published fanzines
      -- was part of Ellison's "Seventh Fandom"
      -- (any idea what became of him?)
  - Georgina Ellis (of Calgary)
    > fanzine editor and fan artist in late 1950s and early 1960s
    > (brief bio here)
    > married Norm Clarke in 1965
      -- before her marriage, she was known in fandom as "Dutch" Ellis (why?)
    > in 1970s, became known as the "Duchess of Canadian Fandom" after being
      referred to as that in a fanzine (which one?)
  - Norm Clarke
    > (brief bio here)
    > jazz and rock music musician
    > after marrying Gina Ellis, they moved to Aylmer, Quebec, eventually
      settled down in Ottawa
    > both remained active in FAPA into the 1970s
      -- co-published the fanzine DESCANT into the early 1970s
  - release of the movie 2001 stirred interest in SF in Canada in the late
    > transitory clubs formed in Halifax, Nova Scotia and Ottawa
    > permanent ones in Toronto and Vancouver
  - Ontario Science Fiction Club (OSFiC)
    > formed in 1966 by Toronto fans Peter Gill, Mike Glicksohn, John
      Mansfield, Ken Smookler, and Maureen Bournes; Smookler was the club's
      first president
      -- club formed after they met each other at 1966 Worldcon
         >> Mansfield had decided to go to the worldcon after reading a series
            of articles on fandom, written by Lin Carter, that had appeared in
      -- Mike Glicksohn
         >> (brief bio of Glicksohn here)
         >> Glicksohn had discovered ad for 1966 Worldcon in FAMOUS MONSTERS
            OF FILMLAND magazine
         >> he was dubbed the "Boy Wonder of Canadian Fandom" by Dave Burton,
            an Indianapolis fan (need confirmation on this!) (why?)
         >> his fanzine ENERGUMEN, which began publication in 1970(?), won
            the Hugo Award at 1973 Worldcon
            --- ENERGUMEN became notable as much for its appearance as its
                content; it was mimeoed on heavy bond paper, and had such an
                impeccable appearance that it inspired other fan editors to
                emulate it
            --- Glicksohn therefore became the first of a new breed of fanzine
                publishers, who thought the appearance of a fanzine meant as
                much as its content
      -- meetings initially held at Memory Lane, "Capt'n George" Henderson's
         nostalgia store for second-hand memorabilia and books
         >> actual meetings held in The Whizzbang Gallery, a basement that
            Henderson rented next door as a show room for comics art
      -- meetings subsequently held at a variety of sites
      -- in a year, meetings had grown from 4 to 40 members
         >> eventually topped out at about 80 members (when?)
      -- prominent members at first included Henderson, John Mansfield, Ken
      -- Derek Carter, Susan Wood, and Alicia Austin joined later in the
         >> Carter an artist, came over from England
         >> Susan Wood
            --- had been introduced to fandom by Richard Labonte', when they
                were students at Carleton Univ. in Ottawa (when?)
            --- (mini-bio here)
            --- met Mike Glicksohn at Boskone VI in 1969; they were married
                in 1970
            --- went on to win Hugo Awards in 1970s for fan writing and as
                co-editor of ENERGUMEN
         >> Alicia Austin
            --- a college student from Texas, in Toronto in late 1960s
            --- left Canada for Los Angeles in 1970
            --- went on to win Fan Artist Hugo in 1971
    > chapters of club popped up in several cities in Ontario (more than just
      Ottawa? need confirmation)
      -- Ottawa chapter (is this the same as the Queens SF Club?)
         >> formed (when?)
         >> prominent members included (who?)
         >> folded in 1969
    > sponsored OSFIC MAGAZINE (a.k.a. OSFIC NEWSLETTER ??)
      -- title and editors changed almost every issue
         >> OSFiC MAGAZINE began in 1968
            --- title almost immediately changed to OSFiC QUARTERLY, then to
                OSFiC SUPPLEMENT
            --- edited by Peter Gill, described (in 1971) as "almost annual"
         >> succeeded by OSFiComm, edited by Gar Stevens
            --- about 40 different issues were published, some under the title
                of OSFiNotes
            --- lasted about three years, fading from view about 1973
      -- contributors included Roger Zelazny (what did he write?)
  - other Ontario fans and fan activities
    > a science fiction club formed at Queen's University in Ottawa in the
      late 1960s (is this same as Ottawa chapter of OSFiC?)
      -- published a fanzine, BOLLIX, which was mostly notable for its
         editor's rabid anti-Vietnam War writings
    > Comics-oriented group formed by students at York University in Toronto
      -- formed in 1969 (??)
      -- members included Vaughn Fraser, Ron Sutton, Dean Motter, and Ron
         >> Sutton and Kasman became known as fan artists
         >> Sutton later became a professional graphic artist in Ottawa
            --- later co-wrote and drew a comic strip which ran in the Ottawa
                CITIZEN for a time
      -- group lasted for (how long?)  (reason for disbanding?)
    > Les Nirenberg's fanzine QUE PASADO (later VAHANA) became a newsstand
      humor magazine titled PANIC BUTTON
      -- Nirenberg came into fandom in 1960, and attended the 1960 worldcon 
         where he met enough fans so that it was confirmed that he was not 
         a hoax
      -- not known how he discovered fandom, but it was plain that he had 
         talent as a fanzine publisher
         >> he had emerged so full-blown and polished onto the fan publishing
            scene, without going through an early crudzine stage, that some 
            of his readers had suspected he might be another fan hoax of the 
            type that "Carl Brandon" had been only two years earlier
         >> his fan publishing career began in 1960, lasted to 1964
      -- PANIC BUTTON was characterized by Jim Linwood as "a strange hybrid of 
         fandom and the 1960s Toronto hipster scene" [source: TWhite 7Feb99 
      -- contributors included F.M. Busby, Colin Freeman, and Dick Schultz
      -- later in 1964, Nirenberg transformed his magazine into "The Panic
         Button Review" comedy nightclub act in Toronto, and received good
         reviews from the TORONTO TELEGRAM
         >> later on, he advanced to being a performer for the Canadian 
            Broadcasting Company (need details)
      -- Ted White later remembered Nirenberg as "fannish and a neat guy. I
         think he became a fan by accident and fandom was a minor detour on 
         his road to success."
  - Atlantic Science Fiction Society (of New Brunswick)
    > "John Mansfield is the guiding light of this group" according to INSTANT
    > formed (when?) (1969?)
      -- in 1970, changed its name to the Base Gagetown Science Fiction
         >> Mansfield had been stationed at Base Gagetown, just outside
            Oromocto, New Brunswick; that military base was one of the main
            military training bases in eastern Canada
    > most significant activity was joint meeting with NESFA in the summer of
      1970, which attracted about 30 fans
    > the club died in the early 1970s after Mansfield was posted in a
      different part of Canada
  - Vancouver fandom
    > in the 1950s, a short-lived Vancouver SF Society was started by Norman
      Browne, who edited the club's fanzine, VANATIONS
      -- Browne's interest was soon directed southward to U.S. fandom, and he
         became hooked up with Harlan Ellison's Seventh Fandom movement before
         eventually dropping from sight by the mid 1950s
    > not much else happened in terms of organized fan activities in British
      Columbia through the remainder of the 1950s and most of the 1960s, until
      a university organization came into being late in the 1960s
      -- that organization, known as SFFEN started at University of British
         Columbia camous in the Autumn of 1968, at first being known as 
         UBC SFFEN
      -- founders were Claire Toynbee and Maynard Hogg
         >> they had placed an ad in student newspaper announcing the club's
            formation and invited any interested people to join
         >> it turned out that there were a number of fans already on campus
            who had been unaware of each other
      -- among people who showed up at first meeting were Mike Bailey, Daniel
         Say, and Brent Maclean
         >> Bailey would go on, in the next decade, to found a monthly
            newszine for the club that succeeded SFFEN
         >> Say would later be the driving force for the first in a long 
            series of regional conventions
            --- was described as "unquestionably, the most energetic, the most
                vocal, and the most enthusiastic" member of the club
      -- initial officers of club were Hogg as President, Toynbee as Vice
         President, and Bailey as Information Officer
      -- other prominent members included Norma & Ed Beauregard, who had met
         at a club gathering
      -- club didn't gather momentum until it obtained an office at Student
         Union Building, where collection of books and tapes was kept
         >> at first, met only infrequently
            --- lacked an office on campus
            --- occasionally was able to reserve a meeting room for parties
            --- most parties were held at members homes
      -- at 1969 Clubs Day, recruited about 40-50 new members, largely through
         the efforts of Daniel Say
         >> added influx of new members allowed club to acquire a permanent
            office in university's Student Union building
            --- served as a more permanent meeting place
            --- housed lending library of SF books and magazines
      -- received yearly money allocation from University's Alma Mater Society
         >> club had to use all its money each year, or have remainder
            absorbed back into Alma Mater Society funds
         >> to raise additional money for fanzine, showed a film ONE MILLION
            YEARS B.C., which netted $140 profit for club
         >> to protect club's funding, a dummy front organization was formed
            in 1970, British Columbia Science Fiction Society
            --- outside incomes protected with off-campus bank account
            --- fans paid dues to new Society instead of University club
            --- later in 1970, new Society became independent of Univ. club.
                became stable club for B.C. fans for many decades afterwards
  - Saskatchewan Sasquatch Seekers Society
    > Leland Sapiro
      -- (brief bio goes here)
      -- published RIVERSIDE QUARTERLY while teaching at Univ. of Regina
         >> mid 1960s (64 or 65) through early 1970s (1974)
         >> previously had been a member of Los Angeles fandom, while an
            instructor at the University of Southern California
            --- it was there that he had started RIVERSIDE QUARTERLY, which
                was really a continuation of the 1950s fanzine INSIDE
            --- there were actually two different "first" issues of RQ, a
                result of a mix-up between Sapiro and his then co-editor Jon
                >>> a breakdown in communications caused Sapiro to go ahead
                    and publish an issue, after tiring on waiting for White
                    ---- featured illustrations by Charles Schneeman
                >>> the very next day, White, on the other side of the snafu,
                    published his own version of their "first" issue
                    ---- his issue featured illos by ATom
                >>> there was some material duplicated between the two
                    versions, but much was not
      -- anyway, while in Canada, Sapiro also published SASKATCHEWAN
         SASQUATCHIAN, the club's official organ
* Germany
  - the beginnings of modern-day German fandom, or 'Gerfandom' as it is
    sometimes known, dates back to the 1950s
    > one of its formative events took place when a British fan, Julian Parr,
      became employed by the British consulate in Dusseldorf
      -- Parr's contribution to Gerfandom's formation was of two parts: he was
         instrumental in convincing the publisher of the sf periodical
         UTOPIA-MAGAZIN to include a letters column, which served as a focal
         Point for fans learning about other fans; he also managed to locate
         some of the German science fiction enthusiasts of that time, and
         brought them news of fandoms that existed outside of Germany
    > one of these German sf enthusiasts was a young man named Walter
      Ernsting, who was the editor of UTOPIA-MAGAZIN and also a sister series
      of sf publications appearing under the name of UTOPIA-GROSSBAND that
      weren't quite magazines and weren't quite softcover books
      -- Ernsting's readers' column, "Meteoriten", was modeled after similar
         columns that had appeared in Hugo Gernsback's magazines of the 1930s
         >> his intent was to use the column as a focal point on which to
            build an organized fandom in Germany
      -- Ernsting was one of those rarities in the world of science fiction,
         someone who was both the leading fan and the leading professional
         writer & editor
         >> professionally, Ernsting was a talented writer as well as a
            knowledgeable editor, winning the German equivalent of a Hugo
            Award in 1957 and 1958 for his fiction
         >> (some bio info about Ernsting here)
      -- Ernsting's intent all along had been to leverage his editorial
         position to promote the formation of organized fandom in Germany, and
         by 1955, there were a sufficient number of fans to allow it to happen
  - Science Fiction Club Deutschland (SFCD)
    > founded on August 4, 1955 by Walter Ernsting, Forrest J Ackerman, Raymond
      Z. Gallun, Hugo Gernsback, Walter Spiegl, and Julian Parr, with Ernsting
      the prime mover; Ackerman, Gallun, and Gernsback were mostly interested
      bystanders, but their names gave credibility to the new organization
    > the club greatest visibility was in its fanzine ANDROMEDA, which was
      initially edited by Ernsting
      -- Ernsting was gone from the editorship by the start of the 1960s, but
         turned out to have a longer editorial tenure than any of his 1960s
         successors; there followed twelve different editorial changes dueing
         the decade of the 1960s
      -- the fanzine brought news, general interest articles, and some fiction
         to its members
    > the early years of the club were not without controversy
      -- in 1957, a book club founded by SFCD was split off from the club by
         Heinz Bingenheimer into a for-profit enterprise, Transgalaxis
         >> this apparently did not set well with many members of SFCD, who
            felt they should have had a stake in the enterprise, and as a
            result, Bingenheimer and the SFCD parted ways by mutual agreement
      -- in 1958, Ernsting and Wolf Detlef Rohr managed a coup of their own,
         when they transformed ANDROMEDA into a more commercial publication
         called BLICK DIE ZUKUNFT, which seemed to contain more advertising
         than fan news
         >> this de-stabilizing act resulted in a schism, with the SFCD being
            renamed by Ernsting as the Science Fiction Club Europa (SFCE),
            with a new SF club, the Stellaris SF-Interessengemeinschaft
            (SSFI), being founded by Karl-Herbert Scheer as a place of refuge
            for disenchanted fans
         >> a further schism then occurred within SFCE, with Ernsting and Rohr
            going their own ways, and it wasn't until 1960 that some normalcy
            began to return
      -- an outsider could look at the machinations going on within the SFCD
         as a parallel, in microcosmic form, to the birth and death of the
         Science Fiction League, with the subsequent fracturing of whatever
         organized fandom existed; however, this time there was a difference
         because SFCD did in fact, re-form at the end of 1959 under an
         umbrella organization called Eurotopia, though SSFI continued to
         >> much damage had been done, however; and the early 1960s were
            characterized by incessant quarreling, much of it involving
            Ernsting, that was becoming more and more personal in nature;
            interestingly enough, Scheer, the leader of the rival SSFI club,
            was not carried into the fracas, and in fact became co-creator
            with Ernsting (under the pseudonym of Clark Darlton) of the 
            super-successful Perry Rhodan series of adventure science fiction
    > by 1962, it seemed that German fandom was doomed disintegrate under a
      barrage of increasingly nasty feuds, but there then appeared a unifying
      force by the name of Waldemar Kumming
      -- (bio info on Waldemar Kumming here)
         >> Kumming seemed to be above all the feuding that was going on
      -- within the span of three months in the summer of 1962, Kumming became
         the president of first the SSFI and then the SFCD, and even succeeded
         in drawing back fans who were so disenchanted that they had abandoned
         affiliation with any fan group
         >> within a year, Kumming had succeeded in merging the SSFI and SFCD
            back into a single organization again, the new SFCD
    > there followed about three years of relative calm, but later in the
      decade more discontent surfaced within SFCD
      -- about the beginning of 1966, political divisions started to form
         within the club, which once again involved Ernsting, though only
         peripherally this time
         >> by 1966, the Vietnam War had started to escalate, and this was
            beginning to polarize not only the mundane world, but science
            fiction fandom as well
         >> fans of the Ernsting's and Scheer's Perry Rhodan series of books
            consisted largely of conservatives, who were in support of
            American involvement in the Vietnam War
         >> they were often denounced as fascists or 'reactionaries' by the
            anti-war fans, who were in themselves labelled as 'lefties'
            --- the 'lefties' became reactionary in their own right, some of
                whom began to consider anything from the U.S.A. to be worthy
                of suspicion or even scorn, including its fandom
         >> unpleasantness escalated, with the result that the SFCD suffered a
            rapid decrease in membership, and a destruction of some of its
            contacts to the science fiction publishing world
      -- by 1967, things had deteriorated further, with the anti-war faction
         metamorphosizing its displeasure toward the so-called 'SFCD
         Establishment', which it scorned for 'bourgeois narrow-mindedness'
         >> (would like a little more detail on how this SFCD Establishment
            manifested itself in the eyes of its dissenters)
         >> this went so far as to embody itself in an Opposition Convention
            or 'OP-CON'
         >> by October 1968, the anti-SCFD Establishment had condensed into
            two opposition groups: the Innerclubliche ("Inside the club")
            Opposition (ICO) and the Ausserclubliche ("Outside the club")
            Opposition (ACO)
    > Kumming, who has looked on helplessly as politics threatened to destroy
      the German fandom he had helped to save some five years earlier, was so
      disheartened that he did not stand for relection, and so in 1968 the
      leadership of the SFCD passed to Gert Zech
      -- however, by then, things had deteriorated so much that the new SFCD
         chairman could do little to reverse things; some more fundamental
         reform seemed called for
    > the dissention came to a peak at the 1969 Dusseldorf convention, DUCON,
      where, at the annual general meeting of the SFCD, the entire SFCD board
      of directors and officers, including Zech, were swept from office
      -- the new SFCD chairman was Heinz-Juergen Ehrig, who was identified
         with the anti-establishment faction, though he was far from being a
      -- amazingly, this seemed to tear down much of the wall that existed
         between the two factions; the victory of the ICO in turning out the
         establishment was seen as removing a power structure that had been in
         place far too long within the club, and with that goal removed from
         their agenda, the ICO rapidly faded away
    > more happened in the SFCD, however, than just fan feuds
      -- ANDROMEDA had resumed publication in October 1959, and continued
         through the 1960s (reaching issue #74 in September 1969) as the voice
         of Gerfandom, undergoing 13 editorial changes in the process
         >> featured news, articles, and fiction
         >> continued to be published for decades afterward as the official
            organ of the SFCD
      -- the Heidelberg Worldcon bid
         >> (details needed on how it came to be, etc.)
  - Other German fan clubs
    > Science Fiction Club Berlin
      -- a West Berlin fan club, too isolated from the rest of West German
         fandom to belong to the SFCD
      -- formed (when?); became a member organization of Eurotopia
      -- left the Eurotopia umbrella in 1965
      -- the club sponsored a (German language) fanzine, ANAbis, which was
         edited by Horst Christiani
         >> seemed to have themes of poetry and horror
         >> had an amazing copy count per issue, with the last four issues of
            the its existence having press runs of over 1000
         >> ceased publication after issue 25, in late 1970
    > Fellowship of the Lords of the Lands of Wonder (FOLLOW)
      -- founded in August 1966 by Hubert Strassl and Eduard Lukschandl
      -- was regarded as one of the 'reactionary' factions of German fandom
    > Frankfurt SF Group
      -- (activities? other info?)
      -- correspondent to the English-speaking world was Hans-Werner Heinrichs
  - source of German fan news to the outside world was STREIFLICHTER, an
    English-language German newszine edited by Alfred Beha
  - another window to the outside world was Manfred Kage's fanzine HECK MECK,
    whose even-numbered issues were in English
  - one other German fanzine that had English-language editions was THE BUG EYE,
    which was exclusively English language [source: Brooks 16Mar00 email]
    > was edited by Rolf Gindorf and Helmutt Klemm, who actually started the
      fanzine in the late 1950s
    > at the time it was published, it was the first of the English-language
      fanzines from Germany
    > it lasted a total of 13 issues, the last dated April 1964
  - (in 1969, won bid for 1970 Worldcon)
  - in the decade of the 1960s, there were two Germanies, separated by politics
    and an Iron Curtain; East Germany, the so-called German Democratic Republic, 
    had a repressive society compared to its western neighbor, but that didn't 
    stop fandom from forming there [source for this section, unless otherwise 
    indicated, Recktenwald 5Apr99 email]
    > the first hints of organized fandom in post-WW2 East Germany were evident
      in the mid-1960s
      -- prior to that there was a fandom of sorts, but it mostly consisted of
         individual fans and collectors, many of whom were able to find ways of
         contacting the SFCD
      -- in 1957, a few East German fans had been able to secure permission to 
         go to West Germany to attend the first SFCD convention
      -- by 1958, an fan club called 'Stellaris' had organized in Karl-Marx-Stadt, 
         but the next year the authorities cracked down, accusing the club of 
         distributing "trash and filth literature"; one member was sentenced to
         jail for five months
      -- science fiction, or at least any information about western fan 
         organizations such as the SFCD, apparently fell into the classification 
         of forbidden literature
         >> SFCD's only East German member, Kurt Hertwig, was sent to jail for 
            four months when authorities discovered his fan activities
      -- as a result of all the repression, fandom in East Germany became, in
         effect, an underground activity; only those thought trustworthy and 
         with an interest in the genre became part of the fan network
         >> this is what led East Germany's most prominent fan, Herbert Haeusler,
            to mention, in his 1961 letter to an American fan, that no organized
            fandom existed in the GDR
    > sometime in the early 1960s, the political climate in East Germany towards
      science fiction mellowed a bit, and science fiction was recognized as a 
      'utopian literature' that aligned with the tenets of communism
      -- in 1963, the state set up a new publication, TECHNIKUS, that was intended
         as a youth-oriented literary stage for science fiction stories
      -- it fell to one forward-thinking writer, Carlos Rasch, to set the stage 
         for the resumption of fandom in East Germany, by making contact via
         correspondence with many of his readers; soon afterward, he outwardly
         proposed the creation of a more formalized science fiction fan network,
         much like Gernsback had done in the United States several decades earlier
    > one of the first fans to take up the challenge to make this a reality was
      Wolfgang Siegmund, in East Berlin, who in 1966 started a letterzine titled
      PHANTOPIA, which was reproduced by carbon paper and had a circulation of 
      less than ten copies
      -- other fan publications soon followed, with much better distribution, and
         eventually some of the copies escaped to the west
      -- by 1967, during the SFCD InselCon in West Berlin, a meeting was arranged
         between East German and West German fans, and the outcome was publication
         of a 'western edition' of an East German fanzine CASSIOPEIA; a total of 
         two issues appeared
    > meanwhile, Rasch had gotten hold of several hundred addresses of science 
      fiction readers who had participated in a state-sponsored poll to determine
      everybody's favorite utopia-themed books
      -- he wrote the poll participants, and encouraged them to look for like-
         minded people and to organize into 'Utopia Clubs'
      -- the first of these formed in 1967, and by the end of the year there were
         15 different Utopia Clubs in existence, though many of them had only a 
         few members
    > GDR fandom didn't exactly thrive after that, but during the decades of the 
      1970s and 1980s but the number of fans did continue to increase
      -- the last major event in its history was the first (and last) GDR convention
         that was held in 1990, a few days after the reunification of Germany
* Austria
  - Austrian fandom is usually thought of as a subset of German fandom
    > as the 1960s progressed, independent Austrian fandom faded, becoming
      absorbed into the neighboring German fandom by the mid 1960s
    > many if not most Austrian fans became members of German fan clubs,
      such as the SFCD and FOLLOW
  - at beginning of the 1960s, the most important fan group in Austria was
    the International SF Society, a 1950s pan-European fan organization that
    had its 'headquarters' in Vienna
    > chairman of the organization was Erwin Scudla
    > the organization was set up with, in effect, branch offices, and its
      goal was to organize fandom worldwide
      -- at one point in 1960, ISFS claimed 3,000 members, and had 19 branch
         offices in 16 countries
    > the organization's fanzine was called SIRIUS, which was published in
      several languages
    > (what eventually became of the organization? when did it disband?)
  - the other major Austrian sf club of the 1960s was Austrotopia, a branch of
    the Eurotopia fan organization described earlier
    > Austrotopia had a relatively brief existence, forming in June 1960 and
      formally merging into SFCD three years later and becoming the Vienna
      chapter of the SFCD
  - Vienna Chapter of SFCD
    > seemed to be a very literary-oriented club
      -- members were almost all fans who wanted to become professional
      -- as a result, club meetings tended to be very sercon and educational
    > (need details about activities, etc.)
    > sponsored a fanzine, PIOneer
      -- was the first German language fanzine that included sword-and-sorcery
         themes, eventually separating itself from science fiction entirely
      -- was the conduit to prodom of a number of Austrian fans, such as
         Helmuth Mommers, Hubert Strassl, and Ernst Vlcek, who had their
         stories published in it
      -- became caught up in all the Insurgent vs. Establishment feuds that
         were disrupting German fandom in the late 1960s
         >> after its 25th issue, its name changged to PIONEER OF WONDER, and
            it became the club publication of the FOLLOW club
  - SF Group Linz
    > founded in 1962 by Hubert Strassl
    > (other details?)
  - notable Austrian fans
    > probably the most notable Austrian fan of the 1960s was Franz
      -- (details?)
    > Helmuth Mommers
      -- born in Vienna in 1943
      -- had a mercurial career in science fiction; in the span of six years
         he entered fandom, became a fan artist and fanzine editor, opened a
         literary agency, became an profesional editor and translator, and
         finally turned into a professional writer
      -- after all that, in 1967 he came full cycle and left the science
         fiction field fully and completely
    > Ernst Vlcek
      -- born in 1941 in Vienna
      -- was a member of Austrotopia
      -- by 1963 had started writing professionally, collaborating with
         Mommers on several novels
         >> in the late 1960s became one of the Perry Rhodan writing team
* Sweden
  - perhaps the most notable fan in Sweden prior to 1960 was Sam J. Lundwall
    > born in 1941, grew up in the Stockholm area
    > he came to prominence in Swedish fandom in the mid 1950s
      -- by then, he had quit school and was trying to make a living as a
      -- not exactly known what drew him into fandom, but soon after he did,
         he became leader of the small and youthful Cosmos Club in the
         Stockholm suburb Hagersten, where he lived
         >> also edited club's fanzine ANDROMEDA
      -- wrote fiction and published fanzines
      -- in 1958, started Sweden's first sf newsletter SF-NYTT (SF-NEWS),
         however it appeared so infrequently the contents couldn't really be
         called news
         >> was published irregularly through 1964; 4 issues in 1958, 3 in
            1959, 8 in 1960, 4 in 1961, 2 in 1962, 2 in 1963, 1 in 1964
         >> appeared even more infrequently after that
    > in 1960s, became a troubadour of some renown within the closely-knit
      Stockholm chanson subculture of that time
      -- recorded two singles and an LP
         >> LP released in late 1965
      -- unfortunately (or perhaps fortunately for the sf world), however, he
         never made a breakthrough, and eventually went on to a profession in
         science fiction publishing
    > in mid 1960s, published a bibliography of all sf and fantasy published
      in Sweden since 1779
      -- was a handsome publication, 70 pages, photo-offset, in both hardbound
         and "stitched" editions
    > for one year, in 1968, was involved as producer for a TV series called
      SCIENCE FICTION, for the newly-started Swedish channel 2
      -- program interviewed, among others, Brian Aldiss and John Brunner
         >> Lundwall himself conducted most of the interviews
         >> at least one other was done by a local film critic and TV
            personality, Torsten Jugstedt
            --- in the 1950s, Jugstedt had produced several successful series
                of radio dramatizations of science fiction and horror stories
      -- other programs in series were panel discussion format like you would
         find at a convention, including one program about fandom
      -- produced a dramatization of a Frank Robinson story, "Hunting
         Season", but it was never aired
      -- in 1969, a publishing house owned by the Swedish TV corporation 
         published a book by Lundwall in connection with the TV series
         >> was a softcover, 188 page publication titled SCIENCE FICTION--FRAN
            BEGYNNELSEN TILL VARA DAGAR (English translation: SCIENCE
            --- was the first book-length work on science fiction ever
                published in Sweden
            --- the book didn't have anything to do with the TV series;
                instead, it was an informal history of the science fiction
         >> the book was roundly criticized by the fanzine SCIENCE FICTION
            FORUM; reviewers found it full of errors and misconceptions, and
            even misspelling of some authors' names
            --- one review, by Goran Bengtson, was 17 pages long; according to
                John-Henri Holmberg, who wrote another of the critical
                reviews, Bengtson (who was a television producer with a
                literary background) wrote his review "in despair at the
                abysmal quality of the first Swedish book on his own favorite
                entertainment literature"
         >> however, the book was a moderate success, and an English
            language edition was published by Ace Books in 1973, although it
            was a completely rewritten and quite different version of the
            original Swedish book
    > by the late 1960s, Lundwall had also become a published author
      -- two novels (names?) saw print in English-language editions from Ace
    > starting in 1972, Lundwall became editor of JULES VERNE-MAGASINET
      -- original version, which had been published weekly since 1941, had
         died in 1947
      -- relaunched in 1969 by journalist Bertil Falk as a semi-pro quarterly
         >> after 2 years, published Askild & Karnekull bought the magazine
            and installed Lundwall as editor
      -- magazine was eventually taken over in 1973 by Delta Publishing, a
         specialty sf publishing house started by Lundwall and literary agent
         Gunnar Dahl
      -- Lundwall eventually incorporated SF-NYTT into JVM
    > later in the 1970s, Lundwall arranged several bi-annual sf conventions
      in Stockholm, but these were to be his last significant fan activities
      -- after that, he concentrated instead on his professional activities,
         including a wholly-owned small publishing house, Sam J Lundwall Fakta
         & Fantasi, which he started in the 1980s as a successor to Delta
  - Bo Stenfors
    > born in 1928, received a law degree from Stockholm University
      -- worked as a government official for the Department of Social Services
      -- eventually rose to Assistant Secretary of State before his retirement
         in early 1990s
    > Stenfors a fan who had also been active in 1950s
      -- published bilingual English/Swedish fanzines with provocative titles
         like SEXY VENUS which ran for 9 issues between 1957-59, and CANDY
         FANTASY which was published 1960-61
         >> the last issues of CANDY FANTASY were entirely in English
    > in 1959, was one of founders of SFSF (see below), which officially came
      into being on January 1, 1960
    > in 1962, published first (short) Swedish fan history
      -- was only 12 pages long
    > in 1966, ran unsuccessfully for TAFF
      -- he was one of the few Swedish fans who often published English-
         language fanzines, and this had brought him visibility in the
         international fandom community
      -- he had been persuaded to run against his better judgement, as he was
         mostly gafiated from mainstream fandom by then
         >> was devoting almost all his spare time to Serieframjandet, an
            organization he helped found that was promoting attention to
    > it wasn't until the 1980s that Stenfors would resume science fiction fan
      activities, when he began publishing fanzines again
  - Swedish fanzines and magazines from the 1950s
    > HAPNA!  (English translation: BE AMAZED!)
      -- begun in 1954
      -- published by Kurt and KG Kindberg
      -- was sold at newsstands
         >> a normal digest-size prozine that contained translations from U.S.
            and U.K. prozines of 1950s
            --- some of its material originally appeared in ASTOUNDING (in the
                first part of its run) and later from F&SF
      -- contained regular column about sf clubs in Sweden
         >> promoted the formation of SF clubs in Sweden
      -- contents included reviews of books and films, a science fact column,
         occasional editorials, and a letters column
      -- officially a monthly publication, usually came out 10-11 times a year
         >> most years there was a 'double summer issue' which combined two
            months into one issue
      -- there was often the tendency to "borrow" material from other publications
         >> some covers taken from the British magazines NEW WORLDS and SCIENCE 
            FICTION ADVENTURES [source: Holmberg 13Jun98 email]
         >> for some issues in early 1960s, every story had been first published 
            in F&SF [same source]
            --- some fans were not very much impressed; John-Henri Holmberg 
                remarked that "HAPNA! managed somehow to pick mainly the weak 
                stories, then weaken them further by rotten translations."
      -- was embroiled in a controversy in 1965, when it was accused of 
         pirating two stories by Terry Carr
         >> led to copyright infringement lawsuit from F&SF which may have 
            contributed to HAPNA!'s eventual demise
      -- discontinued in early 1966
         >> magazine had been losing money, according to KG Kindberg
         >> Kurt Kindberg was injured in an auto accident, which resulted in a
            long hospital stay for him
            --- KG had less interest in doing magazine by himself
      -- a newsletter, renamed as SF-TIMES
      -- published by Sture Sedolin
         >> had permission of James Taurasi to use title of the Hugo Award
            winning U.S. fanzine
         >> begun just a few weeks after SF-NYTT
         >> Sedolin and Lundwall were fan rivals
            --- rivalry started in late 1950s, when they were both in CLUB
            --- feud escalated in 1961 when Sedolin claimed Lundwall "stole"
                the chairmanship of that year's Stockon
                >>> however, "stole" was probably not the right word, since
                    Sedolin had just been drafted into Sweden's army and was
                    unable to be an effective chairman
      -- at any rate, newsletter survived the feud, and lasted until mid 1960s
         >> in its last few years, was edited by John-Henri Holmberg
  - John-Henri Holmberg
    > born in 1949, college degree in literature, worked professionally as an
      editor, translator, copywriter, and literary/film critic
      -- subsequent to 1960s, also became active in politics, eventually
         becoming deputy information officer of Sweden's second-largest
         political party, the Moderate Party
    > in late 1962, published his first fanzine, ZLEWWY, before he had ever
      met anyone else who read sf
    > by late 1963, was publishing Swedish newszine FANAC, modeled after and
      named after U.S. newszine FANAC
      -- began appearing near the end of the run of SF-TIMES, maintaining a
         source of news for Swedish fans throughout the decade
      -- he used pseudonym "Carl Brandon, Jr." in early issues, after hoax fan
         invented by FANAC co-editor Terry Carr (and others) in the mid 1950s
         >> as Holmberg later remembered, "I wasn't particularly inspired by
            Willis or Irish Fandom, but instead was totally fascinated by the
            fannish Berkeley and later New York group, including Terry Carr,
            Ted White, Ron Ellik, Dave Rike, Boob Stewart, and Carl Brandon,
      -- the Swedish version of FANAC lasted until 1982, a total of 117 issues
         >> Holmberg much later re-launched it, in mid-1990s, but it went
            dormant after only two issues
    > can be credited for the introduction to Swedish fandom of the fannish
      -- GAFIAC, which started in 1965 and ran for 50 issues into the late
         1980s, was another example
         >> was mostly a personalzine, with lots of editorial chatter about
            fandom and things that happened to Holmberg
         >> larger issues typically had a fan historical essay, and perhaps a
            translation of piece of faan fiction by the "real" Carl Brandon,
            Harry Warner, Jr., Charles Burbee, or other prominent U.S. fans
         >> according to Holmberg, GAFIAC was modeled more-or-less after two
            U.S. fanzines, INNUENDO and VOID
      -- looking back to that time, Holmberg recalled "In the 1960s, all this
         was totally unknown to Swedish fandom, where the word 'fannish'
         generally was used when the so-called 'fannish war' was discussed."
         >> Swedish fandom's 'fannish war' had actually been a non-serious
            role-playing event, conducted through fanzines and correspondence
    > Holmberg's activity in sf field continued into the 1970s and beyond
      -- replaced Lundwall as 'sf expert' for publishers Askild & Karnekull in
         early 1970s
      -- in mid 1970s, published an overview history of science fiction titled
         THE HISTORY OF SF) and two monographs, on themes in sf and a
         bibliography of and guide to women writing sf
      -- like Lundwall, successfully made transition to sf professional; but
         unlike Lundwall, remained intensely active as a fan for decades
  - Swedish fan clubs from the 1950s
    > Stockholm club Futura
      -- most prominent fan was Sture Lonnerstrand, who was its leader
      -- founded in 1950
      -- started as a literary discussion group, after a few years began 
         publishing fanzines and organizing conventions
         >> clubzine FUTURA, chronologically Sweden's third fanzine, published
            from 1954-1956
      -- lasted into the 1960s, but was never formally dissolved
         >> reports occasionally surfaced about informal, small meetings that
            were held from time to time during the 1960s and in later
            decades by various onetime members
    > Malmo club Meteor
      -- founded in 1952 as a singles meeting club
         >> member Denis Lindbohm quickly took over entirely, and transformed
            it into an sf club
      -- most prominent fan was Denis Lindbohm
      -- club produced the first amateur sf movie ever made in Sweden, DEN
         STORA NATTENS VALNAD  (GHOST OF THE HUGE NIGHT), which premiered at
         Sweden's first sf convention, the 1956 Luncon
      -- club also published Sweden's fourth fanzine, CLLOEV, a non-word that
         phonetically sounds like the Swedish word for 'cloven hoof'
         >> this may have been a reflection of what Lindbohm referred to as
            his "satanic sense of humor"
      -- club remained active into the early 1960s, then faded from sight
         >> the club officially still existed into the 1990s, but no meetings
            or other official activities were ever reported
    > Gothenburg club Cosmos
      -- founded in 1954, not long after the first issue of HAPNA! appeared
      -- published Sweden's first fanzine, COSMOS NEWS, which was edited by
         Lars-Erik Helin
         >> Helin was one of the three founding members
      -- club was in a state of decline through the late 1950s and early 1960s
         >> was revived in 1965 by a new generation of fans, including Inge
            Larsson, Ingemar Nilsson, Soren Cardfelt, and Kjell Rynefors
            --- Nilsson, who was born in 1950, became active in Gothenburg
                fandom in 1965
                >>> he attempted to form a chapter of SFSF there, not
                    realizing that Cosmos had been active for over a decade
                >>> he stayed in fandom only a short time; by 1969 his
                    interests had shifted, and he began devoting time to girls
                    and to Amnesty International
                >>> however, his four years of fanac were hyperactive; he
                    published many different fanzine titles, some lasted only
                    one issue while a monthly newszine, WONDERAMA, lasted nine
                    issues; in the end, he may have been a burn-out victim,
                    similar to Joel Nydahl and some other notable U.S. fanzine
                    fans of the 1950s
      -- (any notable or memorable fan activities to highlight?)
         >> COSMOS NEWS was revived in 1967 (as COSMOS BULLETIN) by Larsson,
            and became a leading Swedish fanzine through the mid 1970s
      -- in late 1960s, resurgence of club was great enough to warrant renting
         a hall for its meetings
         >> it became the first Swedish sf club to do this, a prestigious feat
            that many well-established North American sf clubs had not managed
         >> for this reason, club has been considered by some Swedish fans as
            the LASFS of Swedish fandom
            --- meetings in the 1960s attracted as many as 60 fans
      -- club also had a large enough fan base where fan marriages occurred,
         and there was even a report of a slan shack
    > Alvar Appeltofft
      -- Swedish fan of the 1950s whose goal was to form multinational union
         of fans and sf clubs in Scandinavia: SF Union Scandinavia
      -- was born in 1942; was active from mid-1950s when he published a
         fanzine KOMET and participated in the first (1956) Swedish sf
      -- Appeltofft had absorbed the idea of a super-confederation of fan
         clubs from Carl-Heinz Bierbaum, a German fan who had previously been
         active in the SF Club Deutschland in the 1950s, and who had emigrated
         to Sweden in the late 1950s
         >> Bierbaum was active in SFCD when another pan-European fan group
            existed, the International SF Society, which was an organization
            somewhat similar in design to what SF Union Scandinavia was
            intended to be
      -- Appletofft's efforts to form a pan-Scandinavian fan organization
         lasted through much of 1950s
         >> Union's fanzine, edited by Appeltofft, was UNION SF
            --- contents were a typical clubzine hodgepodge: contained info
                on the SFUS, appeals to readers to proselytize sf among non-
                readers, amateur fiction, and even an occasional article about
                flying saucers, Dean Drives and other pseudoscience
         >> organization ultimately failed because, in the end, it was looked
            on as merely an attempt to create a bureaucracy
            --- fans asked themselves, why set up an unwieldy structure to
                organize fanzine fandom, for instance, when fans who were
                interested in publishing fanzines were already doing it?
            --- a few prominent fans, notably Denis Lindbohm, had spoken out
                strongly against the over-organizing of fandom; many other
                fans obviously felt the same
            --- organization was considered extinct by the end of the 1950s;
                it emerged again, very briefly, in the early 1960s as a
                sponsor of the Swedish apa, SAPA, but then it consisted of
                just Sture Sedolin and John-Henri Holmberg
      -- Appeltofft was one of Sweden's most enthusiastic fans of his time,
         but had unhappy fate of mental illness, which kept him hospitalized
         for much of the 1960s and eventually resulted in his suicide in 1976
      -- the next year later a Swedish fan award was created in his memory
         >> some years after that, money bequeathed from Appeltofft's parents
            brought into existence the Alvar Appeltofft Memorial Foundation
            --- formation of organization instigated by John-Henri Holmberg,
                in 1977, at request of Appeltofft's parents
            --- organization later owned a fanzine library in Stockholm, and
                planned to publish semi-professional works pertaining to
                Swedish fandom
  - Until the late 1950s, fan activity in Sweden consisted mostly of isolated
    individuals and small clubs, with clubs struggling to survive
    > however, at end of decade of 1950s, Swedish fans finally succeeded in
      forming a larger organization that succeeded in filling some of the aims
      of Appeltofft
  - Scandinavian SF Association (Skandinavisk Forening for Science Fiction)
    > known as SFSF
    > formed in late 1959, when Appeltofft's SF Union Scandinavia foundered
      -- officially began activities as of Jan. 1, 1960
    > SFUS was a separate organization, not a confederation of other
      -- but in some ways, still the end result of efforts of Appeltofft
         (though he was not involved in its founding)
    > founders included Lars-Olov Strandberg, Bo Stenfors, and George Sjoberg
      -- Sjoberg became organization's first chairman
         >> Sjoberg born in 1930, and was one of the very early Swedish fans
         >> in 1954, had started a fanzine STAR SF FANZINE, which benefited
            from his skills in layout and as an artist, and won praise as the
            most aesthetic Swedish fanzine of the 1950s
         >> Sjoberg's fannish career ended quite suddenly in 1962, however,
            when he was expelled from the new organization, reportedly for his
            alleged national-socialist political leanings
            --- although the expulsion was hotly debated by many fans who felt
                he was unfairly treated, he soon dropped from sight and had no
                further known contacts with fandom
    > held regular meetings in Stockholm during the 1960s
      -- chapter organizations existed in other cities, including Uppsala and
    > published the sercon fanzine SF-FORUM
      -- initially edited by Sjoberg and Sture Hallstrom
      -- was later edited at various times in 1960s by Bo Stenfors, John-Henri
         Holmberg, Mats D. Linder, and Bertil Martensson
         >> Martensson, born in 1945, became active in fandom in 1962, when
            he began publishing a fanzine, OGRE
            --- his main form of fanac was fanzines during the 1960s, both as
                a fan editor and a contributor of reviews, essays, and fiction
            --- in the late 1960s, he made it into the ranks of professional
                writers, when his novel DETTA AR VERKLIGHETEN  (THIS IS
                REALITY) was published in Denmark and Sweden
            --- in later years, his fan career subsided as his writing career
                expanded, but he elected to retain contact with fandom
            --- he also obtained a Professorship in Philosophy at the
                University of Lund, where he became a noted lecturer
         >> Linder, also born in 1945, became active in fandom a little later,
            in 1964, when he published the first and only issue of his fanzine
            --- this gave him enough visibility, however, where he was almost
                immediately recruited to take over editorship of SF-FORUM,
                which was his main fanac (either as editor or a contributor)
                throughout much of the remainder of the 1960s
            --- later, in the 1970s, he began another fanzine, SUMMA, which
                abandoned fannishness in favor of a more sercon approach, in
                some ways similar to Richard Geis's SCIENCE FICTION REVIEW of
                that same period
            --- eventually began a professional career a technical translator,
                and worked for a time for the International Bureau of
                Standardisation in Brussels, but retained his participation
                in Swedish fandom
      -- 44 issues of SF-FORUM were published in the 1960s
         >> the 40th issue, in 1968, was over 250 pages
            --- contained over 175,000 words of text, including 45 pages of
                book reviews
            --- featured interviews with J. G. Ballard, Brian Aldiss, and
                Bertil Martensson, the latter having had his first novel
                published not long before then
            --- to that time, it was the largest single issue of a fanzine
                ever published
      -- contents was uniformly of high quality
         >> typical issue contained one or two essays on science fiction or
            writers of science fiction, reviews of new books, and fiction
         >> there was also a great amount of fannishness
            --- there were detailed convention reports published in its pages
            --- the 21st and 22nd issues, in 1965, contained the Swedish
                translation of "The Enchanted Duplicator"
            --- Bo Stenfors had a fanzine review column that continued until
                the late 1960s
      -- was the backbone of Swedish fandom of the 1960s and early 1970s
    > in the 1970s, total membership was as many as 800
      -- club later founded a sf bookstore in Stockholm, in 1977
      -- also bought out book club of Askild & Karnekull, about that same
         time, after A&K stopped publishing science fiction
  - other Swedish fanzines of the 1960s
    > CACTUS
      -- published 1959-1961, lasting for a total of six issues
      -- edited by Sture Sedolin
         >> was born in 1942
         >> came into fandom in his teens, like so many other Swedish fans of
            that era
         >> by his early 20s he had acquired an outside interest that took
            advantage of his interest in publishing; he began publishing
            traditional jazz phonograph records under his own imprint
            --- Sedolin's fan career lasted until the late 1970s; his
                interest in jazz continued after that, however, and made him
                an expert in the field of popular music of the 1920s, 30s, and
         >> Sedolin had one, and possibly two, aliases in fandom
            --- one of them, "Sture Hallstrom" came into being when Sedolin
                came back to fandom after gafiating for a time in the early
                1960s due to military service
            --- the other, "Carl Ake Hallstrom" was a contributor to Sedolin's
                fanzines of the 1950s
      -- CACTUS was characterized by John-Henri Holmberg as "a fairly
         impressive fanzine for its day"
      -- at the time, was the country's major English-language fanzine
      -- content leaned heavily toward fannishness, and featured contributions
         from prominent fans like John Berry
      -- published 1963-1967
      -- edited by Sven Eklund
      -- was a wide-open genzine; according to Holmberg, "it would publish
         anything about anything, and had an immensely lively letters column"
      -- as mentioned earlier, was begun in 1954 by Lars-Erik Helin under the
         title COSMOS NEWS
         >> title became COSMOS BULLETIN with its third issue, in 1957 when
            fanzine was briefly taken over by a Scottish fan, Gavin Brown
         >> after another title change, to COSMOS EXPLORER, with its 4th issue
            later that year, the fanzine (and Brown) disappeared from view
      -- revived in the mid 1960s by the Cosmos Club, back under the title of
         >> its second life saw publication from mid 1960s through late 1970s
      -- edited at first by Arne Sjogren and Ingemar Nilsson; later by Kjell
         Rynefors and Inge R L Larsson
         >> Larsson, born in 1944, had become active in Gothenburg fandom in
            the late 1960s
            --- besides being an editor of COSMOS BULLETIN for a decade, also 
                founded the Gothenburg Tolkien Society
            --- in the 1970s, he gained prominence as an organizer of the
                Gothenburg sf conventions
      -- featured, in large part, amateur sf stories, many of pretty high
         >> Rynefors eventually became a Pofessor at Chalmers Institute of
            Technology in Gothenburg, but he never lost his interest in
            writing; he was just beginning what looked like a promising career
            as a professional writer at the time of his death in 1986 in a
            house fire
            --- he had gone back into the burning building in an unsuccessful
                attempt to rescue two of his daughters
    > MENTAT
      -- published for five years between 1967 and 1972
      -- edited by Ulf Westblom, who was an active fan publisher in Sweden
         during that time, and who later emigrated to the U.S. to become
         Professor of Internal Medicine at the Texas A&M University School of
      -- following the lead of fanzines by Stenfors and Sedolin, parts of
         MENTAT were printed in English to attract the interet of British and
         North American fans
      -- featured (what kinds of material?)
         >> its claim to fame was the publication of a short story titled "The
            Flames of Fire"
            --- the story itself has faded into obscurity, but not its author:
                it was by Dean R. Koontz, who went on to become a superstar
                mainstream novelist
      -- perhaps the most remarkable publication to come out of Swedish fandom
         in the 1960s
         >> was a 154-page encyclopedia of Scandinavian fandom, that was
            published in 1964
         >> was actually more than that, even; besides listings of fans,
            fanzines, clubs, fannish terms and the like, it included an index
            of all issues of every Scandinavian fanzine published through
            1963, plus listings of fan clubs and fan pen-names, bibliographies
            of fiction and other material published in fanzines, and even a
            statistical analysis of Scandinavian fanac from 1954 to 1963
            --- fandom had never seen anything like it, and never would again
      -- the fan responsible for this amazing feat was Ingvar Svensson
         >> Svensson, a research biochemist by profession, was born in 1931,
            and began publishing fanzines in 1958
            --- before SKANDIFANDOM was published, he had become known for his
                fanzine SERIA MARZIANA, which introduced a "Martian"
                artificial language, complete with glossaries, grammar, and
                teaching examples
         >> Svensson's other major accomplishment in the science fiction field
            was the founding, in 1963, of the Swedish SF Academy
            --- this organization gained visibility through its sponsorship of
                an annual award to a deserving Scandinavian sf writer or fan
                >>> the first winner, in 1963, was Sam Lundwall
                >>> other winners in the 1960s included Denis Lindbohm,
                    Jannick Storm, John-Henri Holmberg, Bertil Martensson, and
                    Mats Linder
            --- in the 1970s, SSFA also published an index to the Swedish
                language version of Tolkien's LORD OF THE RINGS
      -- an 86-page second-volume addendum to SKANDIFANDOM was subsequently
         published in 1966
         >> after the 1966 addendum, Svennson's interest in science fiction
            and fandom seems to have peaked, and he gradually faded from view
            --- at the time of his death in the 1980s, he had had no contacts
                with fans for several years
  - other notable fans of the 1960s
    > Leif Andersson
      -- born in 1944, began publishing a hectographed fanzine, GALAXY, in
         1957 before he knew there was science fiction fandom, and thus became
         the latest in a long series of times this has happened throughout the
      -- later during the 1960s, after entering the University of Lund, he
         formed a club there, the Lund Fantasy Fan Forening (LF3) (note:
         'Forening' means 'Society')
      -- he was also chairman of the 1966 Swedish national sf convention,
         Malcon 2
      -- became a celebrity when he became the first person in Sweden ever to
         twice win the grand prize in TIOTUSENKRONORSFRAGAN  ("THE 10,000
         CROWN QUESTION"), the first time at age 16
         >> at the exchange rate then in effect, of 5 Swedish crowns to the
            U.S. dollar, that made it "The $2,000 Question", which was what
            Andersson actually won
         >> his specialty subject was Astronomy, which became a career
      -- became professional astronomer, after which his fan activities
         greatly subsided
         >> left Sweden in 1968 on a research grant for an observatory in
            Sicily; soon after he emigrated to U.S., to complete his doctorate
            at the University of Indiana, and then to work at Kitt Peak
            Observatory in Arizona
         >> one of his last appearances in fandom was at the 1978 Worldcon,
            where he was part of the science track of programming
      -- died in 1979 of cancer
         >> following his death, a crater on far side of moon was named in his
    > Lars-Olov Strandberg
      -- born in 1929, became active in fandom in 1956, when he attended the
         first Swedish convention, the Luncon
      -- besides being one of the founders of the SFSF, served on the
         organization's board of directors for decades afterward
         >> also served as chairman of the Alvar Appeltofft Memorial
            Foundation after it came into being in the late 1970s
      -- a very active convention fan
         >> served as treasurer for most Stockholm conventions, starting with
            the 1965 Stockon, and throughout the decades of the 1970s and
            1980s afterwards
         >> became known internationally, from his travels to worldcons,
            British Eastercons, and continental European sf conventions
            --- this was facilitated by Strandberg's profession, as head of
                life insurance investment training with Sweden's largest
                insurance corporation
      -- assumed the unofficial title as the elder statesman of Swedish fandom
         >> according to John-Henri Holmberg, Strandberg was "Sweden's
            combination of E. E. Evans, Howard DeVore, and Forry Ackerman: a
            soft-spoken, self-effacing man whose devotion without any doubt
            guaranteed the survival of the SFSF"
    > Kjell Borgstrom
      -- born in 1929, and was an avid sf reader before entering fandom in
      -- his most notable form of fanac was his free-form sf poetry
         >> published hundreds of items of verse in fanzines, some of which
            were later sold to professional magazines
         >> a collection of his poetry, DEN SUCKANDE TUNGAN ("The Sighing
            Tongue") was fan-published in 1969
      -- remained active in fandom until his early fifties, when he developed
         diabetes and lost most of his eyesight
         >> according to John-Henri Holmberg, "Whether Borgstrom was an actual
            poetic genius or just poking fun at fandom, poetry, and science
            fiction was a question which split Swedish fandom for over twenty
            years, but gradually the former point of view became dominant."
  - finally, there was The Witty Society Your Friend Fandom
    (Witterhetssallskapet Din Ven Fandom)
    > an un-serious organization started by Holmberg, Martensson, and Linder,
      though they continued to remain active in SFSF
    > formed in mid 1967, and used mainly as a collective pseudonym on a
      series of very fannish satirical and humorous one-shot fanzines
    > other doings included presentation of an annual (intended as satirical) 
      award "for indispensible fan activities"
      -- award existed for three years, then, after each of the presenters had
         received it, was disbanded, the three unable to find any other
         'worthy' recipients
    > organization was itself caracturized by other fans
      -- Bitterhtssellskapet Din Fan Vand Om (which roughly translated to "The
         Bitterness Society Turn Back You Fiend") was created by Gothenberg
         fans Inge Larssen, KG Lofwander, and Kjell Rynefors
      -- at same time, Stockholm fans Ulf Westblom, Per Insulander, and Torkel
         Franzen claimed to have formed an organization called Sixth Fandom,
         which mainly engaged in claiming that Their Time to Take Over Fandom
         would come soon
      -- both of these "organizations" existed merely as humourous spoofs
    > organization really only existed sporadically, then went dormant in
      early 1970
  - in summary, Swedish fandom of the 1960s can perhaps be characterized as a
    fandom in change: it was growing larger and had a very active core group
    of fans, while many of the dominant influences from the 1950s such as Sam
    Lundwall went on to other interests
    > as Holmberg later remembered, "Swedish fandom of the 1960s was very
      small, very closely knit, and very active.  Feuds never got personal;
      everyone had a peculiar sense of accomplishment, and we still believed
      in fandom, the future, science fiction, and ourselves.  I suspect that
      most fans kept so active that we never really noticed how few and how
      insignificant we were, filling theimmense silence with the incessant
      patter of typewriter arms against stencils.  It was a fun time, and I'd
      gladly do it over."
* Norway
  - fandom in Norway fandom dates back to December 1954, when Roar O. Ringdahl
    and Cato Lindberg published the first Norwegian fanzine, FANTASI
    > Ringdahl, who was born in 1935, was actually more of a cinema devotee,
      and would later mostly drop out of fandom and become involved with
      publishing the magazine of the Norwegian Film Collector's Club
    > Lindberg, two years younger, had a technical background which would take
      him into a variety of jobs, including that of a radio operator in the
      merchant marine, where he met several American fans [source: MIMOSA]
      -- Lindberg had first learned of the existence of science fiction
         fandom in the pages of AUTHENTIC SCIENCE FICTION magazine, and after
         contacted Charles Lee Riddle and receiving a copy of Riddle's fanzine
         PEON, became interested in fanzine publishing [source: Lindberg 20Jun96 
    > FANTASI was mostly a Norwegian language fanzine, but it did include
      English-language sections, which brought Norwegian fandom to the
      attention of fans in the U.K. and U.S.
      --- Ringdahl took over as sole editor in 1956, when Lindberg went off to
          radio school
      --- the fanzine actually had only a handful of Norwegian readers, with
          more of an audience in Sweden, so after 11 issues it was combined in
          1958 with Sture Sedolin's SUPER FANZINE, after which two more issues
          were published under the name SUPER FANTASI before it ceased
          publication entirely
  - in the early 1960s, Norway was in a fannish dark ages that lasted until
    mid-decade, and the founding of Aniara
    > when the International Science Fiction Society founded its Norwegian
      branch in 1958, Ringdahl was given charge of the club
      -- he published the club's fanzine, SIRIUS, but it and the club seem to
         have disappeared by about the beginning of the 1960s
    > Ray Nelson lived in the Oslo area, in the small town of Ulvcya, for a
      time in the early 1960s, but did not seem to have any lasting influence
      on fandom there
      -- his most notable achievement while he was there was a short black &
         white amateur film, MONSTER ON THE LOOSE, which he and Ringdahl co-
      -- if anything, Norwegian fandom in the form of Ringdahl seemed to have
         had more of an effect on Nelson; in Nelson's novel collaboration with
         Philip K. Dick, THE GANYMEDE TAKEOVER, one of the characters is
         described as "the sadistic Major Ringdahl of Ulvcya Prison"
  - Aniara
    > a SF club formed at the University of Oslo
    > name derived from a Swedish SF-verse-epic/opera by Martinson and
    > founded in late 1965 by Oddvar Foss and Jon Bing (students at the time)
      -- Foss had been sent by his parents to Bergen to study business
         administration, but once he was out of range from his parents,
         decided instead to go to Oslo to study psychology [source: Vermo 
      -- not known where he picked up his interest in science fiction, but one
         slow afternoon he posted a note on a bulletin board at the university
         >> Bing answered it, found they had a common interest in the science
            fiction genre, and decided to see if there were any others on
         >> not long afterwards a small gathering of science fiction fans came
            together; it was the first meeting of the club
    > club was an immediate success; within one year, it had grown to 20
      steady members
      -- club meetings often attended by as many as 70 people
      -- initial correspondence indicated the club was interested in contacting
         foreign fans and organizations
    > in summer of 1966, published an SF year review titled FENOMEN 66
      -- a mostly sercon publication edited by Bing
      -- was published in both Norwegian/Swedish and English editions
      -- lead article was discussion of the opera that gave name to the club
      -- more significantly, discussed climate for SF in Norway, and may have
         set the stage for beginning of Norwegian SF
    > club members Bing and Tor-Age Bringsvaerd produced first all-SF radio
      program broadcast in Norway, which aired on May 26, 1966
      -- Bringsvaerd later went on to become one of Norway's leading authors
    > at first, the fare for club meetings ran to the sercon: discussions 
      of science fiction and readings of some translated sf from the English
      -- this was enough to keep fans interested, however, because at the 
         time there was very little sf translated into English, and not
         too many fans were fluent in English
    > soon afterward, however, the club was full of newly-discovered
      -- one of its members, Bjorn Vermo, remembered that "After a while, it 
         became apparent who were true fans and who were only curious passers-by 
         or more casual readers of SF."
      -- but it was also a bit different than other fan groups: Vermo 
         remembered that "It was a different kind of fandom, with few fannish 
         pranks and no feuds."
      -- Roar Ringdahl re-surfaced, and showed some of his amateur movies,
         though his narrations of the misadventures he had while making them
         were more entertaining than the films themselves
    > about a year after it formed, the burst of enthusiasm by its members
      started to wear off, and there were some lean times
      -- some of its members became otherwise engaged in other activist
         endeavors, and club attendance began to drop off
      -- the most committed members began meeting off-campus, at the apartment
         of Tom Irgens at Frydenlundsgt. 19 in Oslo.  Vermo remembered that
         "Every Thursday we met there, drinking his beer and cleaning out the
         >> Irgens's hospitality may have saved the club; eventually, fannish
            activities began to increase again
      -- after Irgens got married, Foss took his place as proprietor of the
         >> he and another member, Per G. Olsen, took over reins of the club
         >> meeting attendance started to increase again and the crisis was
    > Aniara not only survived the 1960s, it also survived the next decade and
      ones after that
      -- in the late 1970s, they sent their first contingent to a Worldcon, of
         all places the 1978 Iguanacon in Phoenix
      -- in 1980, they had evolved to the point where they organized the first
         sf convention in Norway, the Norcon
  - outside of Aniara, there was not much fan activity in Norway in the 1960s
    > by the end of the 1960s, this started to change, as the growth of fandom
      in neighboring Sweden began to have an effect
    > the most prominent non-Aniara fan in the late 1960s was Oyvind Myhre,
      who was also an author of libertarian-leaning novels
      -- later, Myhre became involved in a rather violent feud with Aniara,
         but that's a story for a future book about the 1970s
* Denmark
  - there were rumors of a proto-fandom in Denmark in the 1950s, but nothing
    seems to have crystallized before the end of that decade
    > two names often mentioned in connection with this proto-fandom were
      Niels E. Nielsen and Edmund W. Hansen, both of whom were professional
      sf writers
  - real fan activities in Denmark started in mid 1960s
    > literary meetings at a cafe in Copenhagen
      -- (details?)
    > Jannick Storm, who turned up in 1965, came into fandom with the idea of
      turning Denmark into a hotbead of New Wave sf activities
      -- he followed up this idea by publishing what was Denmark's first-ever
         fanzine, LIMBO, which John-Henri Holmberg described as "very much a
         literary, avant-gardistic, and psychedelic kind of fanzine"
      -- he also convincing one of Denmark's leading book publishers to let
         him edit a line of sf novels by the likes of Philip K. Dick, J. G.
         Ballard, and Brian Aldiss
         >> he later became close friends with Aldiss, who later dedicated his
            book BILLION YEAR SPREE to Storm
  - Science Fiction Cirklen fan club
    > (details?)
    > went on to sponsor a highly-promoted convention, Fabula, in 1976, which
      resulted in attracting an attendance of almost 2,000
    > encouraged by this success, the club tried for an even bigger convention
      spectacular the next year and lost an enormous amount of money, but that
      too, is a story for a future book about the 1970s
* other Europe
  - Italy (Gian Paolo Cossato could be a source for Italian fandom)
  - France
    > fandom in France dayes back at least as far as the 1940s, when its most 
      prominent fan was Georges Gallet
      -- (very slight amount of detail here)
    > French fandom of the 1950s was visible outside the country, mostly
      because it centered around two active fans, Jean and Annee Linard
      -- (a bit of detail here)
      -- when their activity subsided at the end of the 1950s, fandom in
         France faded back toward obscurity
    > there are not very many activities to report in the 1960s
      -- SF Club de Paris
         >> existed in the early 1960s
         >> became visible briefly when it ran afoul of the French government,
            which banned the mailing of its dual French-English language 
            fanzine, SCIENCE-FICTION INTERNATIONALE, outside of France
            --- when he heard of this, Ray Nelson immediately began offering a
                two dollar bounty for copies of this instant rarity
  - Switzerland
  - Belgium
    > in the 1950s, Belgium had one of the leading European fans in Jan Jansen
      -- however, by 1960, he had totally dropped from sight, not to return
         for over a decade
    > in the 1960s, Belgium was kind of a fannish wasteland, with very little
      in the way of visible activities to outsiders
      -- there were some younger fans, but they were mostly slanted towards 
         comics; TIN-TIN, in particular, was very popular [source: Pettit 2Nov00 
    > Michel Feron, from Hannut, Belgium, was probably the leading and most
      active Belgian fan of that decade
      -- in 1966 was publishing EARLY BIRD, a monthly newsletter of SF,
         horror, fantasy, and comics
      -- by the end of the decade, he was publishing two other fanzines, both
         French-language, that provided some international fan news and
         fanzine reviews
  - Netherlands
    > (1950s summary/condensation from AWoF goes here)
    > in the 1960s, one of the most prominent Dutch fans was Leo Kindt [source:
      Pettit 2Nov00 email]
      -- publisher of several fanzines during that decade, including the clubzine
         HOLLAND SF
    > an American fan, Billy Pettit, lived in The Hague for a while near the end 
      of the decade
      -- (info on Pettit here)
      -- he published several fanzines from there, including AMPHIPOXI, which 
         was also published in the U.S. and (where?) during its brief existence
         [source: Pettit 2Nov00 email]
  - Spain
    > no real signs of fandom in Spain before 1966
    > perhaps the founding fathers of Spanish fandom were two Barcelona fans,
      Luis Garcia and Jose' Anselmo Clave, who in April 1966 published an
      English-language fanzine, A SPANIARD AT THE (SF) WORKS, that alerted the
      rest of the world about the beginning of fandom in Spain
      -- earlier that year, Garcia had published two Spanish-language fanzines
  - Hungary
    > Hungary and other eastern European countries were shrouded by the Iron
      Curtain, so any news of science fiction and fan activities usually
      followed a convoluted route to reach other fan groups
      -- fans from Hungary didn't often turn up in western Europe, but Billy 
         Pettit met a couple of fans from Hungary at one of the British
         Eastercons during the 1960s [source: Pettit 2Nov00 email]
         >> (any details? any memories?) 
    > in 1969, reports surfaced about a fanzine from Hungary, published by
      high school students, reportedly with the help of a local writer, Peter
      -- the Hungarian fanzines that managed to find their way westward seemed
         to have been published by very dedicated enthusiasts; Billy Pettit 
         received one that looked like it had been printed on an offset press,
         and whose content was mostly sercon articles and fiction [source:
         Pettit 2Nov00 email]
  - Czechoslovakia
    > there is only anecdotal evidence of Czechoslovak fandom prior to 1969, 
      though undoubtedly there were many science fiction readers there during 
      the 1960s and prior decades
      -- the world of science fiction, in fact, owes much to writer Karol
         Capek, who in 1921 in his play R.U.R. gave us the word 'robot'
         (which comes from the Czech word 'robotnik', which means 'worker')
      -- lack of organized fandom in the earlier part of the decade was a bit
         surprising; a driving force toward science fiction fandom might have
         existed from the sense of wonder imparted by manned space programs of
         Soviet Union and United States, or from a need for escapism from the
         real world's Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968
      -- it may be that fandom was regarded as a subversive activity, and was
         thus an underground movement
         >> in the late 1960s, British fans Jean Muggoch and Daphne Seawell, 
            who kept a large correspondence file with various fans in different
            parts of Europe, began corresponding with a few Czech fans [source:
            Pettit 2Nov00 email]
         >> somehow, a few of them managed to obtain permission to travel, and
            visited Muggoch and Seawell; they brought with them examples of
            some of the fanzines that were published, which had very small print 
            runs and mostly sercon contents with some amateur fiction
    > near the end of the 1960s, Billy Pettit had taught some computer science 
      classes in Frankfurt, Germany; instructors from the University of Prague 
      were among those in attendance [source: Pettit 2Nov00 email]
      -- in 1969, Pettit came to Prague to install a computer at the University
         and learned that there were some fans in that group
      -- however, they seemed afraid of him, possibly because there were also
         political officers present in the group as well
    > anyway, despite lack of very much information about Czech fandom, we do know 
      that in 1969, a group of university students in Prague formed "The Club of 
      Jules Verne's Friends"
      -- this club didn't last very long, however, and Czech fandom returned
         to its dark ages for another few years
      -- was not until 1972 that a lasting fandom finally began to form in
         Czechoslovakia, but that will be a topic for a future history book
  - Soviet Union
    > Besides eastern Europe, fandom in Russia itself also existed, though
      once again, news of it rarely reached western ears and eyes
    > in 1969, Ed Reed made contact with Professor Kagarlitski of the USSR
      Writers Union, who mentioned the existence of "a great club in Khazov";
      the contact for the club was a Professor Kaganov, which leads one to
      believe that sercon was dominant in whatever fandom existed there
* South America
  - Argentina
    > the leading fan in Argentina during the 1960s was Mae Strelkov
      -- she was born in 1917 in China to missionary parents
         >> raised in Shanghai; moved to South America in 1936 after marrying
            her Russian-born husband, Vadim Strelkov
            --- settled first in Chile, eventually moving to Argentina in 1939
                where she found work as a multi-lingual stenographer in
                Buenos Aires
      -- had become a science fiction reader while in grade school in China,
         after finding books by H.G. Wells in her school library
         >> after arriving in Argentina, she bought all the new sf paperbacks
            she could find at the local newsstand
         >> by the late 1950s, she thought that she, too, could write
            saleable science fiction, and in 1960 she sent off the manuscript
            of a fantasy novel to Ace Books
         >> the manuscript was rejected, but the rejection letter, written by
            Don Wollheim, brought her into contact with fandom
      -- she became known in fandom as a letter of comment writer
         >> following rejection of her manuscript, she and Wollheim became
            correspondents and good friends; he introduced her to fanzines
            --- first fanzine she received was a 1961 issue of CRY
            --- her letter of comment to that issue was published, which
                brought her other fanzines from fan publishers eager to have a
                South American correspondent
         >> she responded to nearly all fanzines she received, which, combined
            with her geographical location, made her somewhat of a celebrity
            in fandom
            --- however, she never thought of herself as a celebrity: "I saw
                myself as an obstreperous neo who often needed taking down a
      -- in little more than a decade, she had become a fan prominent enough
         to become the subject of a special fan fund to bring her to a
         worldcon, which was accomplished in 1974
      -- paradoxically, however, in spite of Mae Strelkov's prominence outside
         of South America, she had very little impact on fandom in South
         >> she was mostly unable to find other fans on her own: "I hunted
            high and low for them, I visited publishing houses who were trying
            out a line of reprints of science fiction translated from the
         >> Wollheim got her in contact with another prominent Argentine fan,
            Hector Pessina, but a correspondence exchange got nowhere: "He
            found me nuts, and rightly so.  I'm too crazy for typical
            intellectual Latin Americans; I like to have fun and break taboos.
            They like to be proper and highly respected."
         >> to find the roots of organized Argentine fandom, we have to look
            toward a different person
    > Hector Raul Pessina was Argentina's other internationally-known fan
      during the 1960s
      -- (mini-bio of Hector here)
      -- he might be deserving of the title 'Father of Argentine Fandom', when
         in 1960, he began publishing a mostly English-language fanzine THE
         >> he thus became the international spokesman for organized Argentine
            fandom; through that fanzine, the outside world learned about fan
            activities in Argentina
         >> the fanzine itself contained fiction, fanzine & sf reviews, in
            both Spanish and English
      -- by the beginning of the 1970s, Pessina's interests had expanded
         >> he began a bilingual Spanish-English fanzine, EL ALIENIGENA
         >> another Pessina publication, OMICRON, which appeared only once,
            was more oriented to science fiction and fantasy in the movies
            --- in 1973, he founded a movie club, Metropolis 3000, which
                specialized in science fiction films
    > Buenos Aires SF Society
      -- organized (when?)
      -- as of early 1964 was reported to have about 30 members
    > La Plata Science Fiction Society
      -- organized in March 1964
         >> became second organized SF club in Argentina
      -- was much smaller than Buenos Aires club, withonly about 5 members in
      -- president and corresponding secretary was Osvaldo Ellieff
         >> letter to Bob Lichtman requested that fans send his club any books
            and magazines they were willing to part with
            --- said that his club was very small and was "short of money as a
                logical consequence of any underdeveloped country"
    > another small club existed in Mar Del Plata in the late 1960s
      -- was known as the Antelae SF Club
      -- President was Fernando Pujadas
      -- main claim to fame was as sponsor for one of the rare sf conventions
         in South America, the Mardelcon of July 1968
         >> during the convention, the Antelae Club used the occasion to debut
            the first, and possibly only, issue of their fanzine, ANTELAS
  - Uruguay
    > this unlikely spot for fandom did manage to produce one fan that became
      internationally visible for a short time at the end of the 1960s,
      Marcial Souto
      -- by the time he became known in fandom, he had moved to Argentina
      -- during the 1960 Mardelcon, when it became known he would be moving to
         the U.S. for a stay of several years, he was acclaimed as 'Argentine
         Fandom's Plenipotentiary Ambassador' to that year's Worldcon
  - Brazil
    > Brazilian First Fandom
      - appeared in the 1960s, mainly because of the boom in published science
        fiction that was occuring in Brazil at the time
        > Gumercindo Rocha Dorea was editor of Ficcao Centifica GRD, a SF line
          of books
      - first important fan in Brazil was Jeronymo Monteiro, who was also a
        published sf writer and also wrote detective and adventure stories
        > he founded the Clube de Ficcao Cientifica, known to outsiders as the
          Brazilian Society of Science Fiction, in 1964
          -- meetings were held at Monteiro's house, and were frequented by
             Brazilian writers such as Ney Moraes and Andre Carneiroy
          -- no fanzines or other fan publications seem to have emanated from
             the club; Brazilian fandom did not seem to discover fanzines for
             another decade
        > Monteiro went on to edit the Magazine de Ficcao Cientifica, the
          Brazilian version of the magazine F&SF, before his death in 1970
        > after Monteiro's death, the Society and the magazine both went into
          -- organized fandom would not become highly visible in Brazil after
             that for about another decade
    > only other event of note from Brazil in 1960s was the 1969 SF Symposium
      -- was held in Rio de Janeiro in March of 1969
         >> was one of the events at a two-week international film festival
      -- not a fan convention; was an international meeting on science fiction
         >> among attendees were Fred Pohl, Harlan Ellison, Forrest J
            Ackerman, Robert Heinlein, Arthur C. Clarke, Poul Anderson, J.G.
            Ballard, Damon Knight, Kate Wilhelm, A.E. Van Vogt, Robert
            Sheckley, and Brian Aldiss
      -- some classic SF films were shown, including METROPOLIS, THE DAY THE
         >> an award was presented to Clarke and Stanley Kubrick for the movie
            2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY
* Africa and Asia (except Japan)
  - South Africa
    > fandom in South Africa got its start in 1969 [source for this section except 
      where noted: PROBE 100]
      -- in early 1969, Rita Cooper, of Pretoria, began exchanging audio tapes
         with a friend in California, Dorothy Jones
      -- Jones happened to be a member of the NFFF, and mentioned the fact in
         passing, one one of the tapes she sent off to Cooper
      -- when Rita Cooper's husband, Tex Cooper, heard that section of the
         tape, he found the idea of belonging to organized sf club so
         appealing that he expressed an interest in joining the NFFF on the
         next tape that crossed back to the United States
      -- Jones's next tape had an even better suggestion: why not start a
         South African science fiction fan club instead?
      -- after hearing that and at Rita's urging, Tex sat down and wrote a
         letter to the Sunday Pretoria TIMES, which was published on April 13,
         >> the letter offered that a science fiction club was possible, if
            there was enough interest
         >> there was; response was almost immediate with 37 replies
            ultimately received
    > the first meeting of South African fandom occured at the Cooper's home   
      on a bitterly cold winter day: June 6, 1969
      -- nine other people attended, and the result of the meeting was a
         unanimous consensus that a national sf club should be formed
    > the Coopers wrote a thank you letter to the TIMES, which was published
      on June 29th, and the result was another 25 letters of interest
    > after some further planning, the first official meeting of Science
      Fiction South Africa took place on October 3, 1969, in Johannesburg,
      at the home of Mary and Simon Scott, two of the original respondents
      -- membership fees were set at 2 rand per year
      -- the club was optimistic about its future, and set life membership fee
         at 20 rand (in an era where a month's salary was about 400 rand for a
         computer programmer)
    > club immediately started a lending library, with about 200 books that
      were donated by members, and a newsletter, PROBE, was also authorized
    > meetings were held in homes of the members, alternating between the
      cities of Johannesburg, Pretoria, and East Rand
    > there wasn't too much personal contacts with fans outside of South Africa
      -- in 1969, Billy Pettit went to Johannesburg and met some of the club
         members [source: Pettit 2Nov00 email]
    > the club did indeed proved to have staying power, and managed to survive
      the inevitable Crisis of Apathy that hits most clubs a few years after
      they are born
      -- annual conventions were sponsored by the club starting in the 1970s
      -- annual short story contest also inaugurated in 1970s
    > SFSA has survived for decades afterward
  - Other Africa
    > no indigenous fandoms are known
    > nearest thing to fanac from elsewhere in Africa involve non-Africans
      -- British fan George Locke was posted by the British Army to Kenya in the 
         early 1960s and published a fanzine from there that was titled THE PROSE
         OF KILIMANJARO [source: Locke 5Nov00 email]
         >> it was not a work of literature, however; Locke described it as 
            "awful rubbish!  But doing it was sort of fun, and it was on the 
            Army's time, equipment, and stationery -- no wonder we lost our
* Japan
  - pre-1960s fandom
    > the first well-known Japanese fan outside of Japan was Tetsu Yano
      -- was befriended in 1953 by an Australian fan, Harry Brook, who was
         stationed in Japan while serving in the Australian army
      -- Yano acquired many fan contacts through Brook, including Forry
      -- Ackerman soon after arranged for a visit to U.S. by Yano, including a
         trip to the 1953 Worldcon (in Philadelphia)
         >> Yano stayed in U.S. for over six months as the guest of Ackerman
      -- Yano remained active in fandom throughout the 1960s in Japan,
         becoming an 'elder statesman' while only in his 40s
         >> after that, he transitioned into pro-dom, being successful as a
            writer, translator, and critic
    > organized Japanese fandom's beginnings in the 1950s was the Uchujin Club
      which was based in Tokyo
      -- was founded in May 1957, which can be considered the birth date of
         organized fandom in Japan
         >> original name was Kagaku-Sosaku Club, which translates roughly to
            'science fiction club'
         >> club was founded by a small group of people who were members of
            the Japan Flying Saucer Research Association, who had more of an
            interest in science fiction than in pseudoscience
         >> was immediately popular with sf-readers in Japan, and experienced
            rapid growth; later in 1957 was reported to have about 80 members
            --- club served as a springboard to pro-dom; by the early 1960s,
                at least six Uchujin members had stories or non-fiction
                articles published professionally
      -- Tetsu Yano was initially the leader of the new club; however, the
         most prominent member, and another of the founders, was Takumi
         >> Shibano was born in 1927 at Kanazawa in Ishikawa-ken, the son of
            an Army officer
            --- while in primary school, became a fan of scientific adventure
                stories by the Japanese writers Yamanaka and Unno
            --- in 1939, came across a copy of H.G. Wells's WAR OF THE WORLDS,
                which had a profound impact on him: he later remembered that
                "At that moment, I felt the direction of my life was mostly
         >> Shibano's interest in science fiction was a driving force for him
            throughout high school and college; in 1950, he graduated from
            Tokyo Institute of Technology with an engineering degree, and that
            same year he also sold his first science fiction story, under
            pseudonym of 'Rei Kozumi'; he later wrote two novels under that
            pseudonym that were published in 1969
            --- while in college, he discovered he had a knack for explaining
                things, so soon afterward, he became a mathematics teacher at
                Koyamadai High School in Tokyo, which also allowed him to
                nurture an interest in science fiction in many of his students
         >> eventually, he looked outside the school for people with interest
            in science fiction, and took on the task of locating fans in other
            parts of Japan
            --- became known as the 'Japanese Forry' for these activities
      -- another member of the club was Sachiko Shibano, whom Takumi had met
         not long after he had graduated from college
         >> (need some info on Sachiko's fan activities of the late 1950s and
            early 1960s)
    > Takumi Shibano became editor of the club's fanzine, UCHUJIN
      (translation: 'cosmic dust')
      -- begun in 1957, published monthly
         >> immediately popular with Japanese fans; by the end of the 1950s,
            the circulation was up over 100
         >> continued through the 1960s
      -- published mostly fiction
         >> issue 100, in 1966, featured contributions from big-name SF
         >> can also be credited as the pathway for several Japanese writers,
            including Shin-ichi Hoshi, into the ranks of the professionals
    > visited U.S. in 1968 as recipient of special 'Trans-Oceanic Fan Fund',
      with his wife Sachiko
      -- fan fund was perhaps shortest duration of any ever help; it only took
         a single auction at 1967 Worldcon to raise sufficient funds
         >> Bjo and John Trimble handled auctioneering duties
         >> John was able to telephone the Shibanos that same day, telling
            them they had better start making travel plans
      -- they attended 1968 Worldcon
      -- visited Roy Tackett in New Mexico
      -- went to other parts of the U.S. (Need some details here)
      -- at the conclusion of the trip Takumi realized he could not think
         about science fiction and fandom the same way as before: "Before this
         visit, I had persuaded myself to think of SF as just a hobby, because
         I thought I should be faithful to my main job as a math teacher.  But
         after then, I could not treat SF the same way anymore.  I was
         captured by a sort of fantasy that SF fan activity can become one of
         the best ways to lead to peace in the world."
         >> to follow up on this, he wrote an article about science fiction
            fandom in Japan that was published in IF magazine
         >> eventually, his love of science fiction and his dedication to
            the globality of the genre started to win out over teaching, and
            by the 1970s was a full-time translator of science fiction in the
            days, and a part time teacher at Koyamadai High School in the
      -- their 1968 visit to the U.S. was the first of many, which culminated
         in their being fan guests of honor at the 1996 Worldcon, the first
         fans from Japan so honored
  - SF MAGAZINE ((note: I have Japanese translation))
    > first successful prozine in Japan
      -- previous attempt had been SEIUN (translation: "Nebula") magazine,
         which lasted only a single issue, in 1954
    > began publication with its February 1960 issue, which appeared in
      bookshops at the end of 1959
    > first editor was Masami Fukushima
      -- remained as editor for nearly a full decade, being succeeded by
         Masaru Mori in 1969
    > published translations of English-language stories at first, some of
      which had appeared in F&SF
    > eventually began publishing original fiction by Japanese authors
      -- occasionally had story contests, which served to encourage the growth
         of science fiction in Japan
      -- often featured polished-up stories that had seen first publication in
    > although SF MAGAZINE served as a focus for science fiction in Japan in
      the 1960s, it wasn't actually the focus of science fiction fandom there
      -- by the 1960s, additional fan clubs had started to emerge
  - SFM Fan Club  ((note: I have Japanese translation))
    > second fan group in Japan
      -- originally named the SF-Magazine Fan Club
    > organized in 1962 by Shiro Shima and Jun'ichiro Kida, though both soon
      faded from sight
      -- Kida went on to become a popular literary critic, while Shima just
         disappeared from fandom
    > club was nominally headquartered in Tokyo, but members were from all
      over Japan
    > published a clubzine UCHU-KIRYU ("Space Current"), which lasted for 85
      issues, through the early 1970s
      -- the longest tenure of editorship was held by Mitsuo Makimura
  - Null Fan Club of Osaka
    > existed in early 1960s
    > president was Yasutaka Tsutsui
    > was smaller than the Uchujin club, and its activities were not reported
      on as widely as the Uchujin club
      -- best known activities were a series of annual joint meetings with its
         neighbor, the Uchujin club
         >> these were reported on in a U.S. fanzine, DYNATRON
         >> were almost a mini-convention: the second one, in 1962, went for
            seven hours, with speeches and discussions
  - regional fan groups
    > started up in middle of 1960s; by 1965 there were 14 different fan
      groups in Japan
    > Federation of Fangroups formed in 1965 as a super-organization of fandom
      in Japan
      -- Takumi Shibano was instrumental in its founding; he was elected as
         its chairman in 1966 and continued in that post until 1970
  - there were other fan publications in Japan besides UCHUJIN and UCHU-KIRYU 
    in the 1960s
    > the most prominent was NULL ((note: Japanese translation is the same)),
      published by the Osaka fan group of the same name
      -- this was Japan's second amateur sf magazine, though it was not really
         a fanzine
      -- editor/publisher was Yasutaka Tsutsui
         >> much of material was by Tsutsui and his brothers
      -- began publication in 1960
         >> typical pagecount was 40 to 50 pages, with the 10th issue nearly
            100 pages
      -- perhaps the 10th issue caused a burnout, because the magazine ended
         publication soon afterwards, in 1964, after its 11th issue
  - even though Tetsu Yano brought fandom to the attention of the English-
    speaking world in the early 1950s, interactions with fandom outside of
    Japan were very infrequent until the 1960s
    > in 1960, Roy Tackett was stationed in Japan during his military service
      with the U.S. Marines
      -- after seeing a copy of SF MAGAZINE, the Japanese version of F&SF in a
         bookstore in Iwakuni, he wrote a letter to the editor explaining that
         he was an American fan stationed in Japan, and hoping he could be put
         in contact with Japanese fans
      -- letter was published, and soon after, Tackett received letter from
         Takumi Shibano (although Shibano claimed it was the other way
         around), followed by letters from other Japanese fans
      -- as Tackett later remembered, "Takumi lived in Tokyo, which was some
         distance from Iwakuni, so we never met, but we did carry on a lively
         letter exchange.  He told me about Japanese fandom and I told him
         about U.S. fandom."
      -- Tackett published much material about Japanese fandom in his fanzine
         >> in his first report, in DYNATRON's sixth issue, in July 1961,
            Tackett was able to document the progress of Japanese fandom, as
            seen through the eyes of Takumi Shibano: "As editor of UCHUJIN, I
            have been troubled lately by club members who have been arguing
            two different principles.  One group says that we should continue
            our policy of serving as a showcase for developing writers and
            presenting material for later commercial publication, while the
            other group says we should devote more interest and space to
            fandom itself."
            --- Tackett's succinct comment to this for his readers was,
                "Sounds familiar, doesn't it?"
      -- Tackett later wrote an article about U.S. science fiction and fandom
         that was translated by Tetsu Yano and published in SF MAGAZINE
    > there were other North American fans to visit Japan in the 1960s
      -- Steve Schulteis and his wife visited the Uchujin club in January 1965
      -- Leon Stover, who belonged to New York's Hydra Club, was a visiting
         Professor at Tokyo University during the 1960s
         >> didn't take part in any fan activities during his stay in Japan,
            but he did take part in a round of correspondence with Takumi
            Shibano about, among other things, plans for publication of
            Japanese science fiction in English
  - Japanese Science Fiction Fandom Awards
    > inaugurated by Takumi Shibani in 1965 to recognize contributions to
      the science fiction field in Japan
    > five people were recipients when the award debuted in 1965
      -- Roy Tackett received the award for his activities in forming
         bridges between Japanese and North American fandom
      -- another was presented to Tetsu Yano, who by that time had become
         a successful writer
      -- Shibano himself received one of the awards (was he surprised? Or
         did he know about it beforehand?)
      -- others went to a short story writer, M. Fukushima, and an editor,
         S. Sitoshi
    > the next year, the award was given to Forry Ackerman for his many
      activities in nurturing international fandoms
    > the awards continued annually through 1970, when they were replaced
      by the Seiun Awards

Fan Funds

As long as there have been widely separated fan communities, there have been
fans who have wanted to bring these communities closer together.  One
manifestation of this has been the creation of fan-supported funds to honor
notable fans by covering the expenses of a long-distance visit.  The Trans-
Oceanic Fan Fund described previously is a case in point, but it was by no
means either the first or the best known of these Funds.

The concept of Fan Funds probably originated in British fandom during the
second World War.  The fans there who had found a way to stay active during
wartime came up with the idea of raising money to bring Forry Ackerman, who at
that time was the most popular and well-known American fan, to Britain for a
kind of fannish cultural exchange visit.  There was one problem, however --
Ackerman vetoed the plan. 

It turned out that Ackerman had his own ideas about funding a visit by a well-
known fan.  In 1946, not long after the Los Angeles Worldcon of that year, he
observed that in the four World Science Fiction Conventions held to date,
there had not been even a single attendee from outside North America, in spite
of the existence of a very active and thriving British fandom.  This, to him,
was a travesty, and he proposed to do something about it.  As he later
remembered, "I proposed creating what I called the 'Big Pond Fund'.  It was
evident who the greatest fan in England was at the time -- it was Ted Carnell.
It was also evident that it would be a good idea to find a way to bring him to
the next Worldcon."

It proved much more difficult that Ackerman had imagined.  A fund was in fact
created, with Philadelphia fan Milton Rothman heading it up and Ackerman
serving as Treasurer.  Carnell wasn't the only Britfan considered, but he was
selected as the proposed honoree.  All seemed well at first, but monetary
support from North American fans was slow in coming.  By the summer of 1947
there weren't nearly enough funds collected for a trip to the that year's
Philcon, so the trip was postponed.  A year later, there still weren't
sufficient funds collected to sponsor a trip.  It took one more year of
collecting funds, a significant portion of which Ackerman donated out of his
own pocket, to make the trip happen.  In 1949, Carnell made his long-delayed
trip to North America, and by attending the 1949 Cinvention, became the first
British fan to attend a North American science fiction convention.

Orchestrating that first fan fund had proven so difficult that it took three
more years before there was another.  By the early 1950s, the most active and
popular fan was Walter A. Willis, who lived in Northern Ireland.  In 1951, 
Florida fan Shelby Vick came up with a campaign to bring Willis to that year's 
New Orleans Worldcon.  When it was realized that there just wasn't enough time 
to conduct an effective money-raising campaign, Vick shifted his target to the 
1952 Chicon, and the campaign came to be called "WAW with the Crew in '52."  
This time, there wasn't a problem in raising enough money for financing a trip, 
and Willis arrived in the United States for an extended trip that not only took 
in the Worldcon, but also brought him to fan centers from New York to Los Angeles 
and back.  The result was the classic Willis trip report THE HARP STATESIDE, 
which has come to be regarded as the best fan trip report ever written.

The Willis trip had been so successful that ideas for future funds soon began
to surface.  The year after the Willis trip, Don Ford of the Cincinnati Fan
Group started a fund to bring British fan Norm Ashfield to the 1953 Worldcon,
but it soon turned out that he was unable to make the trip.  Some money had
already been collected, so this was offered at Coronacon, the 1953 British
National Convention, to any fan that Anglofandom might elect.  At the
Coronacon, Walt Willis convened an informal braintrust of British fandom which
came to the conclusion there just wasn't enough time to finish fundraising in
time for an election for someone to go to the 1953 Philcon.  Instead, they
decided that "a permanent Two-Way Transatlantic Fan Fund be set up to help
both British and American fans to attend each other's conventions."  Willis
set up the basic voting procedures, which allowed both American and British
fans to vote, provided they had been active in fandom for at least a year.
There was also a voting fee to help raise money for the winner's expenses.
Thus was the Trans-Atlantic Fan Fund born.

There were six TAFF elections during the 1950s.  The fund got off to a bad
start when the winner of the very first election (in 1954), Vincent Clarke,
lost his job and was unable to make the trip.  Two years later, another TAFF
winner, Lee Hoffman, declined for personal reasons to accept any TAFF money.
The other four elections produced very worthy delegates: Ken Bulmer in 1955,
Bob Madle in 1957, Ron Bennett in 1958, and Don Ford in 1959.  Ford was the
first TAFF winner not to have a Worldcon as part of his itinerary, instead
attending the 1960 British National Convention.

* TAFF in the 1960s
  - 1960:
    > Don Ford U.S. TAFF delegate (selected in 1959)
      -- Bjo Wells (later Trimble) and Terry Carr other candidates
         >> no second or third place votes, only first place
         >> some British fans (Chuck Harris especially) were dismayed at the
         >> however, voting breakdown showed Ford won by large margin in U.S.,
            by narrow margin in U.K.
      -- attended the 1960 Eastercon
    > Eric Bentcliffe selected as delegate to attend Pittcon
      -- got 377 votes, to 277 for Mal Ashworth, to 261 for Sandy Sanderson
         >> Sanderson came in 1st in U.S., last in U.K.
         >> high number of votes an artifact of the preferential voting system
            that was in use at the time
      -- EPITAFF trip report published in March 1961
  - 1961
    > Ron Ellik selected as delegate to travel to U.K.
      -- got 145 votes, to 62 for Dick Eney
      -- attended 1962 Eastercon
    > THE SQUIRREL'S TALE trip report published posthumously (by Bruce Pelz)
      in 1968 (?)
      -- Ellik had finalized his report text before he died
  - 1962
    > Ethel Lindsay selected as delegate to attend Chicon III
      -- defeated Eddie Jones, 122 votes to 64 (41 to 29 in the U.K.)
    > trip report THE LINDSAY REPORT published in April 1963
  - 1963
    > Wally Weber elected as TAFF delegate
      -- (mini bio on Wally goes here)
      -- defeated Marion Zimmer Bradley and Bruce Pelz, 203 votes to 165 to
         >> came in last in U.K. voting, however
      -- attended the 1964 Eastercon, in Peterborough
      -- traveled the country afterwards, meeting up with different fans and
         fan groups
         >> one-shot fanzine by Peter Weston, THE KENCON, commemorated a
            weekend stay by Weber in Worcester
      -- however, never published a TAFF trip report
         >> was reported that he had discarded a first draft "because of
            dissatisfaction with its quality" (Carr/Schluck TAFF PROGRESS
            REPORT #9)
         >> if there was a subsequent draft, never saw the light of day
  - 1964
    > Arthur Thomson defeated Phil Rogers in TAFF election
      -- Rogers was current BSFA chairman, and a founding member
      -- Terry Jeeves also briefly a candidate, but was forced to withdraw
         because of continuing problems with Asthma
      -- Thomson a well-known fan artist and fan writer
         >> had come into fandom in mid 1950s, gaining popularity with his
            cartoons in HYPHEN
         >> was ambidextrous, drawing with whichever hand was closest to the
            --- Willis insisted that Thomson could write with one hand while
                simultaneously drawing with the other
         >> what perhaps made him most suited as a TAFF candidate was his
            ability to be amusing at parties and conventions
            --- Willis had earlier written of him: "Art has given us more than
                prolificacy without lowering of standards, he's given us humor
                without cruelty, satire without malice, wisdom without
                arrogance, and good taste without ostentation."
    > ATom's travels across North America
      -- flew into New York, was welcomed by fans at JFKennedy Airport on
         Saturday, August 22
         >> stayed in New York only one day
         >> Terry Carr acted as host
      -- early Sunday, got on Greyhound to Cleveland
         >> was met by Nick Falasca
      -- rode with Nick Falasca out to Los Angeles
         >> stopped in Indiana to visit the Coulsons, where he also met Marion
            Zimmer Bradley and Walter Breen; stopped in Illinois to see Bob
      -- spent a week of partying in Los Angeles with fans
         >> stayed with Bruce Pelz, who took him to Disneyland and to a LASFS
            --- was accompanied to Disneyland by "a great mob of people"
      -- rode up to Oakland with the Pelzes for Pacificon
         >> committee provided him a free room at the Hotel Leamington
      -- after the convention, went on to Seattle to visit the Busbys and
         other Seattle fans
         >> driven there by Wally Gonser
         >> lost $100 in cash and his wristwatch, stolen from his room in a
            motel on the way between Oakland and Seattle
            --- went to sleep with wallet and wristwatch under his pillow, and
                awoke to find them gone
            --- money lost included $90 in sales from Pacificon art show
            --- eventually, after he had returned to England, most of his loss
                was covered by a travelers insurance policy he had bought
                prior to the trip
         >> Gonser also was robbed, losing about $25
      -- then took Greyhound back east, stopping to visit fans along the way
      -- arrived back in New York, staying there about a week
         >> was taken to World's Fair by Charlie & Marsha Brown
      -- left back for England on September 20th
    > trip report: ATOM ABROAD
      -- report appeared in 1965
         >> took longer to finish than expected because of time limitations
            on ATom's typing
            --- his apartment not well soundproofed, so he could not use his
                typewriter in the days or late at night
      -- 94 pages
      -- was last TAFF trip report to be published until Len Moffatt's trip
         of 1973
  - 1965
    > Terry Carr selected as delegate to attend Loncon II
      -- won over Jock Root and Bill Donaho, 207 votes to 114 to 89
      -- gave speech at Loncon banquet explaining workings of TAFF
    > summit of many of past TAFF winners held at Loncon to discuss fund's
      -- Willis proposes "hold over funds" as a voters option; approved
      -- adopted preferential ballot system of determining winner
    > never published a TAFF report
      -- was reported in RATATOSK that he intended to publish his report in
         three parts, in his FAPAzine LIGHTHOUSE
         >> then was to be published separately in one volume for sale to
            raise funds for TAFF
      -- had selected a title: "Last Year at the Mount Royal"
      -- much later, in the mid 1980s, a very condensed report, "Beyond the
         Mnemonic Statute of Limitations" appeared in the fanzine RAFFLES
         >> Carr described the article: "It's the only TAFF report of my trip
            that I'm ever likely to write."
  - 1966
    > Tom Schluck (from Germany) selected as delegate to Tricon
      -- Schluck was one of Germany's most internationally-known fans in the
         >> came into fandom in the early 1960s, as part of a fan group in
            --- was editor of that group's fanzine, SOL
         >> began attending sf conventions in Germany, but by 1962, he started
            looking outward from Germany; he attended the 1962 Eastercon, at
            Harrogate, where he met Harry Harrison and Brian Aldiss
            --- he also became interested in U.S. fandom about then (details?)
      -- defeated Eric Jones, Peter Weston, and Bo Stenfors, by vote totals
         of 83 to 39 to 20 to 5
      -- became first non-British European TAFF delegate
    > was welcomed to New York on Aug. 29 by welcoming committee consisting
      of Ted White, Terry Carr, Andy Porter, and Mike McInerney
      -- at same time, was welcomed to Los Angeles by Bruce Pelz who was
         apparently confused by all the New York smog
      -- that night, was Guest of Honor at party thrown by Terry and Carol
         >> treated people present with samples of German fan drink Vurguzz,
            a 180-proof drink bottled by German fans
            --- had gotten the booze into the U.S. in a bottle labeled as
    > stayed with the Carrs while in New York, traveled with them to the
      worldcon in Cleveland
    > after the Tricon, went to west coast
    > never published a TAFF report
      -- part of report was published in German fanzines, however
  - 1967: no TAFF trip (see Carr/Schluck 11/66 TAFF PROGRESS REPORT)
    > fund was very low on money
      -- longer campaign deemed necessary to allow fund to raise needed money
    > also, Schluck had not yet fully assumed administration from Thomson
  - 1968
    > Steve Stiles ties with Ted Johnstone on first ballot
      -- Stiles wins when 3rd place votes for Ed Cox are redistributed
         >> final voting totals: Stiles wins 61 to 58
         >> first time the so-called Australian ballot system needed to
            determine the TAFF election winner
         >> only 15 European voters
      -- Stiles attends the 1968 Eastercon
    > never published a trip report
      -- snippets of a trip report, ubder overall title of "Harrison
         Country" appeared in Arnie Katz's QUIP in 1968, and then in the
         mid 1980s in a Baltimore clubzine that Stiles was co-editing
  - 1969
    > Eddie Jones beats out Bob Shaw
      -- becomes Fan GoH at St. Louiscon when Ted White vacated in order to
         publicize TAFF
         >> this event will be reported on in a later chapter
      -- arrived in North America (when?)
         >> first stop was in Potsdam, New York, for a visit with Dave and
            Ruth Kyle
         >> followed that with a trip to New York City for visits with the
            various New York fan groups
            --- (anything notable happen there?)
      -- (St. Louiscon activities)
         >> he gave a short, humorous speech about fandom (anything more
      -- after the Worldcon, traveled to the West Coast
         >> visited L.A. fandom (details?)
* there were other fan funds in the 1960s besides TAFF, an example being the
  1968 fund mentioned earlier that brought Japanese fans Takumi and Sachiko
  Shibano to the United States
  -- in fact, TAFF seemed to co-exist quite nicely with other one-shot fan
    funds that appeared from time to time, which speaks volumes about the
    generosity of fans
    >> from a historical perspective, special funds seemed to appear about
       every two or three years
    >> this trend began in 1959, when a special fund was created to bring
       Irish fan John Berry to the 1959 Worldcon, where he was further
       honored as the Fan Guest of Honor
* the first of these special funds in the 1960s was the Parker Pond Fund of
  - to send Ella Parker to 1961 Worldcon
  - resulted from comment by Wally Weber in 1960
  - Ella originally wanted to save for trip herself
    > confided in only a few people, including Ron Bennett
  - hoax cover for Bennett's SKYRACK 29 with headline "Ella Parker for Seacon"
    > Ella wrote Bennett angry letter for breaking her trust
    > however, her copy was *only* one with that cover
    > after realizing what had happened, Ella sent Bennett a telegram: 
  - fund becomes public at 1961 Eastercon
    > administered by Don Ford and Betty Kujawa in U.S., Ted Forsyth in U.K.
  - Ella left for U.S. on Aug. 22, 1961
    > seen off by group of male fans including Arthur Thomson
      -- car bedecked with farewell slogans: "Gararin, Titov, and now
      -- ATom told bewildered officials that "they were all Ella's husbands
         and had come to say good-bye to her, and also that she had a three
         week burlesque engagement in Nevada."
  - Trip report resulted: PARKER'S PEREGRINATIONS (subtitled "The Harpy 
* Tenth Annual Willis Fund (for 1962 worldcon)
  - for both Walt & Madeleine
  - originated by New York fans Ted White, Pete Graham, Greg Benford
    > originally announced in the fanzine VOID (Jan. 1961)
  - also announced in SKYRACK #32a (May 1961)
  - Larry and Noreen Shaw championed the cause in their fanzine AXE
    > put together special fan fund to raise money
  - Walt Willis trip report resulted: TWICE UPON A TIME
  - Madeleine wrote her own report as well
    > published in installments by Bruce Pelz
* Colin Freeman Fund (a.k.a. "Operation Andy Capp")
  - purpose of fund was to get Freeman to the 1965 Loncon
    > Freeman was a handicapped fan (handicap = "Andy Capp")
      -- had severe bone disease that kept him in Scotton Banks Hospital in
         Knaresborough, near where Bennett lived in Harrogate
      -- Freeman was described by Bennett as being "extremely intelligent,
         with a good sharp sense of humour"
    > Bennett's mother met Freeman in late 1950s on a hospital visit, 
  - fund was administered by Ron Bennett (U.K.) and Dave Hulan (U.S.)
    > took donations, held auctions
    > by early April 1965, had raised about $175
  - proved to be a financial success but a practical failure
    > sufficient money was raised
    > however, Freeman was not well enough to travel to the convention
    > funds were eventually returned to the donors
* Al Andrews Typewriter Fund
  - not really an international fan fund, though fund itself was publicized
    in international fan forums like the 1969 worldcon
  - Alfred McCoy Andrews was a middle-aged fan from Alabama, afflicted with
    Muscular Dystrophy
    > was one of early organizers of fandom in southern U.S.
      -- was Director of the Southern Fandom Group that had been formed by him
         and Lloyd D. Broyles
    > by 1969, the disease had progressed to the point where he could no
      longer publish his fanzines, and was forced to drop his one remaining
      fan activity, his membership in the apa SFPA
      -- the fan who had helped him by publishing all his fanzines had dropped
         from the apa [source: Moudry in SFPA 191]
      -- but it had also become too difficult to use the manual typewriter he
  - almost immediately the apa missed Al's friendly presence, and decided to
    do something about it
    > finding another publisher for his zines proved easy, but it took more
      extreme action to enable Andrews to more easily compose his fanac
    > the solution was to replace his manual typewriter with an easier-to-use
      electric typewriter, and a fan fund was decided on as the vehicle to
      procure the new typewriter
  - fund became active in 1969
    > organized by Hank Reinhardt
    > money raising efforts conducted at 1969 DeepSouthCon, 1969 Worldcon, and
      through the mail
  - fund succeeded in its goal
    > approx. $250 raised, and Andrews presented with a new typewriter in the 
      Autumn of 1969
    > Andrews returned to activity with a fanzine "As I Was Saying..." in the 
      November 1969 SFPA mailing
    > however, the irony was that was the final fan activity from Andrews
  - in early 1970, Andrews died when he slipped and fell down a flight of
    stairs at the nursing home where he was living

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